7 Personality Characteristics That Help in Managing Trauma

City background at sunset with hands raised in foregroundPsychological trauma, defined as the experience of an event in which a person feels their life is threatened or in danger, may be accompanied by a sense of helplessness, horror, or numbing as the internal alarm system becomes activated.

We react to trauma in a number of ways, and certain factors put us at risk for more severe psychological difficulties. Fortunately, there are qualities we can build on to help us manage our reactions to traumatic events.

There are four main types of reactions we may experience following a trauma: emotional, cognitive, physical, and interpersonal.

  1. Emotional reactions include shock, fear, grief, anger, guilt, shame, helplessness, numbness, sadness, confusion, denial, abandonment, anxiety, and depression.
  2. Cognitive reactions might include problems with concentration, indecisiveness, difficulty making decisions, and intrusive or unwanted memories. You may notice thoughts such as, “How could someone do this?” or, “It felt like time stood still.”
  3. Physical reactions consist of bodily tension, feeling fatigued, insomnia, startling easily, racing heartbeat, nausea, change in appetite, chills, digestive problems, or profuse sweating.
  4. Interpersonal reactions involve feeling a sense of distrust, experiencing a loss of intimacy, increased conflict with others, isolation from others, or problems at work or school.

Other reactions to trauma are less common and more severe, and may require professional intervention. These may include:

Not everyone will develop a mental health condition or posttraumatic stress (PTSD) following a traumatic event. There are certain risk factors that increase the chances of experiencing more severe reactions to trauma, including severe exposure to a disaster, low socioeconomic status, having a preexisting mental health condition, being part of an ethnic minority, lacking social support, and lacking social resources.

Although there are factors that increase the risk of severe trauma reactions, there are also at least seven personality characteristics, described below, that can help a person successfully cope with or manage trauma.

Locus of Control

Locus of control is the extent to which we believe or expect we can control the outcomes of events that affect us. Our locus of control may be internal or external. If we have an external locus of control, we believe our behavior is guided by fate, luck, or other external forces. If we have an internal locus of control, we believe our behavior is guided by our own decisions and efforts, and that outcomes are related to our actions.

Crises challenge our beliefs and expectations about the level of control we have in the situation. Attempting to assert some degree of control following a crisis can aid in more effective coping and can help create a greater sense of meaning and consistency. Some researchers have observed that an external locus of control is related to learned helplessness, a condition in which a person perceives no sense of control, expects that there can be no escape, and believes any attempt to escape will result in failure.

While an internal locus of control can have positive effects in moderation, those who attempt to unrealistically control events may need assistance adjusting their expectations about outcomes. For instance, someone with an unrealistic belief that they could have prevented a crisis on their own by doing A, B, or C may need help focusing on what they can realistically control.

Self-Efficacy

Self-efficacy is our belief about how capable we are to handle situations. If we have high self-efficacy, we exert effort to overcome challenges. If our self-efficacy is low, we avoid actions we think will exceed what we’re capable of. Self-efficacy builds on itself as we add to our successes. It is thought that people who expect to successfully cope with their emotions and moods are more likely to be proactive in their healing and to seek out something positive in threatening situations.

Optimism

Optimism is holding hope and expecting that good things will happen. Optimism is focused on a desired outcome and not on who is in control or how capable one is in reaching the outcome. Optimists emphasize the positive during difficult situations and have been found by some researchers to be less anxious, hostile, depressed, and self-conscious than those with pessimistic attitudes.

Hardiness

Hardiness as a personality characteristic describes someone who is curious, actively involved, believes they can influence outcomes, expects that life will present changes, and tends to believe that challenges are opportunities for development. People with hardiness have a willingness to learn something of value, and merge those lessons into their lives. Hardiness is also associated with active coping and decreased emotional distress.

Resilience

People with resilience are those who are at risk for failure early on in life but who nonetheless become successful. Resilient people can take responsibility for their own part in a situation and let go of responsibility for the things they cannot change. Some qualities of resilient individuals include active problem solving, perceiving difficult experiences constructively, gaining positive attention from others, and an ability to continue finding meaning in their experience.

Sense of Coherence

People with a strong sense of coherence understand that stress is an inevitable part of life and recognize that dealing with it successfully can be beneficial. Having a sense of coherence means we seek to comprehend, manage, and find meaning in situations. When we attempt to comprehend the crisis situation, we try to make sense of what happened and explain how it occurred. To manage the situation, it can be helpful to utilize available resources. Meaningfulness indicates the situation is worthy of our time and investment. Having high meaningfulness motivates us to search for ways to comprehend the situation and seek out resources to aid in managing the incident.

Creativity

The ability to creatively cope is related to one’s ability to let go of the usual ways of solving problems. People who can produce creative solutions are better able to cope with traumatic events in which there are limited opportunities to exert control. Creativity involves flexibility in dealing with one’s environment.

How we react to a traumatic event can be greatly influenced by a number of factors. There are several common ways we react to trauma, and some reactions are more severe than others. Numerous personality traits were identified here that can be learned or cultivated to deal more successfully with trauma and obtain what is increasingly being recognized as posttraumatic growth.

References:

  1. Tedeschi, R.G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1995). Trauma & Transformation: Growing in the Aftermath of Suffering. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
  2. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for PTSD. (2010). Mental Health Reactions After Disaster. Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/handouts-pdf/Reactions.pdf

© Copyright 2016 GoodTherapy.org. All rights reserved. Permission to publish granted by Marjie L. Roddick, MA, LMHC, CTTS, therapist in Vancouver, Washington

The preceding article was solely written by the author named above. Any views and opinions expressed are not necessarily shared by GoodTherapy.org. Questions or concerns about the preceding article can be directed to the author or posted as a comment below.

  • 8 comments
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  • alan

    alan

    June 22nd, 2016 at 9:19 AM

    They don’t call me Polly Positive for nothing-
    I got this

  • Rena

    Rena

    June 22nd, 2016 at 4:14 PM

    You know, I have been through a bunch of personal stuff in my life so I am a pretty resilient person. I do think that my ability to remain optimistic even in the face of the worst of the things that I have encountered has helped to keep me in a better place mentally. I know that not everyone has that in them and I am fortunate that for whatever reason I think that I was always given just the thing that I needed to cope and make it out on top. Never easy, never fun, but I think pretty highly of myself knowing that it could have torn a lesser person down.

  • Leigha

    Leigha

    June 23rd, 2016 at 11:27 AM

    wonderful tips on resilience for all

  • Markey

    Markey

    June 24th, 2016 at 9:38 AM

    What I like to do is intertwine some things that might be more comfortable to me, and then take that time to work out the others which might not feel so good.
    Going for a walk wit my dog? Great time for me.
    But also a little time to myself when I can work through the stresses that I am feeling while doing something that overall makes me feel better. It makes working through all of that a little more enjoyable than it might otherwise be.

  • Luke

    Luke

    June 25th, 2016 at 11:00 AM

    Yes for some of us there is this always present fear and anxiety that sets upon us and it can be difficult to separate this from what we know to be the traumatic events that could have happened to us in the past against the truly stressful things that could be happening to us in the here and now.

  • Olivia

    Olivia

    June 26th, 2016 at 5:11 AM

    but don’t you ever just have this strong feeling that you really don’t ultimately have that much control over what happens in life?

  • Jeb

    Jeb

    June 27th, 2016 at 8:14 AM

    It doesn’t matter if the person really is not ready to emerge from the pain of the trauma

  • Maisy

    Maisy

    June 30th, 2016 at 4:47 AM

    I always hold out hope for the best. I think that it is simply a part of my spirit to be an optimistic person, because what other choice do I have? To be down and negative all the time? That is absolutely a self defeating way to go through life, and I for one choose to have more of a life than one filled with all of that angst and negativity.

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