Self-efficacy is a person’s belief about whether he or she possesses the necessary skills to complete tasks and achieve goals.
What is Self-Efficacy?
Self-efficacy is similar in some ways to self-confidence, but focuses more on an individual’s belief in his or her ability to competently do things rather than his or her beliefs about his or her own worth.
The concept of self-efficacy was developed by child psychologist Albert Bandura, as part of his theory of social-cognitive learning. Social-cognitive learning focuses on learning by observation. Self-efficacy is critical to learning, according to Bandura, because people with a high-degree of self-efficacy have a strong incentive to learn. They tend to view new or challenging tasks as goals over which to gain mastery rather than as overwhelming setbacks at which they might fail.
Role of Self-Efficacy in Learning
People with high self-efficacy tend to have an internal locus of control, which means they believe that they can control what happens to them. People with low self-efficacy and an external locus of control, by contrast, tend to believe that external events and forces control their behavior and lives. Consequently, people with high self-efficacy are more likely to be persistent because they believe the ability to master something is in their power. This can affect motivation for learning, and students with low self-efficacy may struggle not only with grades but also with completing schoolwork.
Low self-efficacy can also lead to problems such as anxiety or depression. When a person is low in self-efficacy, they feel that they have little control over their own lives, which can contribute to feelings of overwhelm, sadness, or hopelessness.
Influences on Self-Efficacy
Teaching styles that encourage exploration and mastery rather than memorization or uniformity tend to produce more self-efficacy. Similarly, parents who institute consistent rules and provide their children with plenty of affection tend to have children with higher degrees of self-efficacy.
- An introduction to self-efficacy. (n.d.). University of Connecticut. Retrieved from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/selfefficacy/section1.html
- Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman.
Last Updated: 08-24-2015
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