How to Co-Parent with an Ex Who Parents Differently

Man holds little girl's hand as she waves to her mother who has come to pick her upWhen a couple with children separate or divorce, finding a way to co-parent successfully can be challenging. Even if the separation is the best course of action for a couple whose marriage has turned toxic, deeply unfulfilling, or hopelessly stagnant, powerful emotions inevitably accompany the end of a marriage. Although there may be relief and a sense of hope for new beginnings, it’s more typical to feel anger, grief, hurt, confusion, numbness, or temporary despair. The end of a marriage can be a death of sorts, even if it’s the death of a fantasy: of your partner’s unconditional love, of your ability to fix anything, of perfect security or absolute trust.

In the midst of disentangling shared lives, roles, routines, finances, and responsibilities, strong negative emotions can make it hard for one or both members of a couple to do what is best for their children, particularly during a tumultuous, uncertain time. This includes working together to create a new normal, containing criticisms and complaints about the other parent, and focusing on the children’s vulnerability and need to feel loved and safe.

Continuity in parenting and structured routines is important when parents separate. If continuity is difficult, try to find ways to help the children understand and make sense of the lack of continuity. For better or worse, moving from sharing roles and responsibilities in a two-parent household to being co-parents in different households requires a degree of maturity and selflessness that can seem out of reach when hurt and resentment run deepest, as is often the case in the wake of a split. It’s precisely at this juncture, when partners may be feeling emotionally out-of-control, lonely, and a bit like orphaned children themselves, that a new type of alliance between them can act as a protective factor for children. In The Co-Parents Handbook, Bonnel and Little suggest what some might consider a highly advanced mindfulness practice for exes: moving from “spouse mind” to “parent mind” (2014). Noticing which of these two minds is active at any given moment and consciously choosing to relate to your ex as a co-parent rather than as a spouse can make a huge difference in how you approach parenting issues.

Changing the dynamic with your spouse from marital antagonists to task-focused collaborators takes time and will be a work in progress after any separation. Sometimes, it only happens in fits and starts. Often, finding shared parenting ground with your ex will require deep breathing during communication, trial and error, self-compassion, forgiveness, and determination as you move through multiple adjustments, compromises, disappointments, and triggering events.

“Research shows that parents who can put aside their differences for the sake of the children, learn to get along, and co-parent effectively make the transition to a new family structure less stressful and traumatic. This model increases the likelihood of children maintaining a positive relationship with both parents, which greatly minimizes the negative effects of divorce on children,” says Francine Ronis, a parenting educator and therapist in McLean, Virginia (personal communication, 2017). Despite the challenges you and your ex will face in this process, it’s important to set your joint sights on a higher set of priorities that transcends grievances in the interests of a greater good: your children’s ongoing physical and mental health.

Dissimilar rule structures, inconsistent discipline or consequences for unwanted behaviors, and widely divergent parenting styles may have a more lasting adverse impact on children from the toddler years into the preteen years, when a young person’s sense of self is particularly malleable (Karen, 1998). During these formative years, lifelong foundational templates for behaviors in relationships and in the world are being laid, and these templates—sometimes referred to as schemas—impact a person’s sense of self, agency, emotional resilience, and competence (Cloitre, 2004).

Imagine the challenges faced by the children in this divided family, a composite of cases drawn from people I’ve worked with in the therapy room over the years (names have been changed to protect confidentiality):

The more you can spare your child any “messenger” type of role and work directly with your ex to co-create rules, routines, and effective strategies for supporting your children and discouraging acting-out behaviors, the more ease and cooperation you’ll evoke in your children.

Leah and Dave divorced after Dave discovered Leah’s affair with a coworker. They communicate infrequently, usually via text, though sometimes they send each other articles supporting their distinct parenting approaches to prove a point. They live in nearby apartments and share custody of their 4-year-old daughter Rose and their 6-year-old son Matthew, alternating care every two weeks. When the children are with their father, he holds them to a structured play, meal, and bedtime routine, though he rarely bathes them and is lax with hygiene habits such as brushing teeth. He expects Leah to take care of their dental and medical visits and vaccinations, though he has never discussed this explicitly with her. He allows the kids sugary snacks and processed meals but restricts their exposure to iPads, iPhones, and television. He has an authoritarian parenting style, uses time-outs, and when he’s at his wit’s end, he yells.

Leah, on the other hand, plays things by ear when the children are in her care. She allows them to sleep in her bedroom rather than requiring them to remain in their own bed at night, unless her boyfriend is visiting. When Rose has tantrums or when Matthew begins begging for video games or new toys, she finds it less time-consuming and stressful to acquiesce than to set boundaries or enforce consequences on continued whining or begging. On nights her boyfriend stays over, she rewards the children with video games for staying in their beds. Although she’s a wonderful chef and cooks healthy meals, the children often reject her food. She handles this by lecturing them on potential future health crises, or sometimes she simply breaks down and starts to cry. Although she takes the children to their medical appointments, she resents Dave for delivering the children to her on different occasions with lice, viruses, rashes, cavities, and ear infections, and expecting her to handle it.

Whatever your position on how Leah and Dave are parenting Rose and Matthew, the inconsistencies in how they handle routines, discipline, health issues, mealtimes, bedtime, sweets, and technology is likely to create serious problems in their co-parenting relationship. It may also set the stage for difficult-to-manage behavioral issues in their children. If Dave gets them on a successful sleep schedule, that schedule will be disrupted every time they visit Leah and are allowed to sleep in her bed, and he will have to reinvent the wheel every time the kids return to him. If Leah tries to educate the children on healthy food and provide them with nourishing meals, her efforts will be undermined when they go to their dad’s house and revert to Captain Crunch breakfasts and pizza dinners. With both parents making assumptions and judging the other parent’s way of handling things, self-righteousness may polarize them beyond their true values and intentions, making it harder to blend approaches and unify around a shared, effective way of handling repetitive challenges and issues.

10 Ways to Co-Parent More Effectively

Here are 10 practical ideas to try out if you’re serious about setting the stage for a more productive co-parenting relationship (these suggestions presuppose that neither parent is a danger to themselves or others):

  1. Understand your unconscious parenting style and how it may be a reaction to or a repetition of the way your own parents parented you. Are you authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive? It’s important to find ways to make your co-parenting style a conscious choice, one that serves your children’s developmental needs rather than your own fears (Tsabary. 2016).
  2. Take a co-parenting class. Many community centers and law firms offer co-parenting classes, sometimes for free.
  3. Read a co-parenting book. There are many great books out there with helpful insights and tools. If you’re not a big reader, marriage and family therapist Polly Ely has created a range of hand-held scripts (available at which you can keep in a kitchen drawer, purse, or backpack and read for on-the-spot guidance navigating challenging exchanges with your kids (2016).
  4. Listen to parenting audios. There are many parenting and co-parenting audio programs available for download at nominal fees on the internet or for rental at public libraries. Child psychologist Dr. Renee Hackney, for example, has an audio library on her website providing research-supported psychoeducation on a wide range of parenting topics (2017).
  5. Communicate regularly with your ex, even if it’s through texts or email, to coordinate schedules and keep each other informed of school events, lessons, medical issues, or other relevant information. The AzAFCC has a helpful Co-Parenting Communication Guide with specific suggestions for communication tailored to the exact medium you are using (2011).
  6. Notice what your ex is getting right. Express gratitude and appreciation through texts, email, or in person. For example: “I’m so grateful for the notes you write to me and put in our daughter’s backpack keeping me posted on the stuff you think I should know about your time together.” Apologize when you do or say something you regret.
  7. Talk to your ex about the pros and cons of your routines, find common ground, and agree to keep certain parts of the children’s routines consistent between households. Co-create a co-parenting agreement, something that helps unite you in your intentions, vision, parental rights, obligations, and mutual goals (Family by Design, 2012.) You can also co-create a co-parenting mission statement, post it on the refrigerator, or make it a daily reminder as a screensaver. For example: “Our mission as co-parents is to work together, to respect and support our separate relationships with our kids, and to help our children develop into kind, confident, resourceful, happy human beings.”
  8. Find ways to support each other that will allow for greater consistency while permitting flexibility. Examples: providing a few frozen home-made meals at drop-off for the parent who hates to cook, or keeping the children on the other parent’s sleep schedule even if that requires extra effort.
  9. Discuss the rules that vary between households with your children, and explain why you and your ex have different views about these rules. Express your belief that your child has the ability to respect both sets of rules, just as they might whisper when they’re in a library and laugh loudly when they’re at a playground. Give your children space and time to share their feelings about the inconsistencies.
  10. When a serious difference or grievance arises, figure out a way to work through it respectfully. Learn to contain and compartmentalize your negative emotions in your children’s presence. Avoid making negative statements, judgments, or even indulging in subtle innuendoes about your ex’s wrongness, badness, or inferiority. If possible, minimize the amount of time you spend spinning your mental wheels judging, blaming, criticizing, and complaining about your ex, whether to yourself or others. Although it’s appropriate and necessary to feel and work through your anger and grief, it’s inappropriate and harmful to overexpose your children to these processes or to remain stuck in a victim role.

Drop deeper into the underlying vulnerability your anger is protecting you from. Take responsibility for some part of why your marriage didn’t work, and rise to the challenge of making your relationship as co-parents a successful one. This will empower you to accept your situation, grow, and move on. If you need a mediator or a therapist to help you do this, get one. Agree to ground rules for respectful communication and stick to them. It’s important to minimize aggression/aggressive language or behavior toward your ex at pick-ups or drop-offs or at events where you’re together, such as birthdays, holidays, or graduations.

Keep in mind your child’s father or mother is one of a kind to your daughter or son, even if stepparents enter the picture. Try to see your ex through your child’s eyes. Children internalize their relationships with their parents as reflections of their own identity. The more you can spare your child any “messenger” type of role and work directly with your ex to co-create rules, routines, and effective strategies for supporting your children and discouraging acting-out behaviors, the more ease and cooperation you’ll evoke in your children. In addition, when you can help your children maintain a realistic and positive connection with your ex, you’re helping them to cope with your separation or divorce, feel safer and more loved, and develop a healthier sense of self.


  1. Arizona Chapter of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts. (2011). Co-Parenting Communication Guide. Retrieved from
  2. Bonnel, K., & Little, K. (2014). The Co-Parents Handbook: Raising Well-Adjusted, Resilient, and Resourceful Kids in a Two-Home Family from Little Ones to Young Adults. Bellevue, WA: CMC Publishers.
  3. Cloitre, M., Cherry, S., Levitt, J., & Martin, A. (2004). A Two-Phase Treatment for Adults with PTSD Related to Experiences of Mass Violence, The Manual.
  4. Ely, P. (2016). The Lab Method. Retrieved from
  5. Family by Design Ventures. (2012). Family by Design, the Community for Parenting Partnerships. Retrieved from
  6. Hackney, R. (2017). Parenting Playgroups. Retrieved from
  7. Karen, R. (1998). Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape our Capacity to Love. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  8. Tsabary, S. (2016). The Awakened Family: A Revolution in Parenting. New York, NY: Viking.

© Copyright 2017 All rights reserved. Permission to publish granted by Alicia Muñoz, LPC, Topic Expert

The preceding article was solely written by the author named above. Any views and opinions expressed are not necessarily shared by Questions or concerns about the preceding article can be directed to the author or posted as a comment below.

  • Leave a Comment
  • sandra

    February 24th, 2017 at 10:38 AM

    My ex husband is so much more laid back and permissive than I have ever thought about being and although I knew that we would have different parenting styles I never could have really imagined that we could be that different. But here we are. I would say that these differences are probably the biggest reason behind us splitting up because he thought that I was too hard on the kids and I thought the opposite of him.

    So naturally the kids tend to gravitate toward him because why not? he lets them get away with pretty much anything and it is really taking a big toll on my own relationship with the kids.

    He said that they can come live with him for a while and I have thought about letting them but then I get scared and think about what if they like it so much there that they never come back home to me?

  • ed

    February 25th, 2017 at 6:07 PM

    The best advice is to always keep in mind what is going to be the best thing for the children. People get greedy, they get selfish and most of the time they look out for themselves. But who gets hurt in a situation like that, when you are out to hurt the other parent? It isn’t really about the kids anymore but instead it is all about hurting that other parent even more than they already hurt.

  • Corinne

    February 26th, 2017 at 9:56 AM

    We can barely even be in the same room together much less take a class together.

  • walker

    February 27th, 2017 at 11:47 AM

    Kids need consistency in their lives
    The last thing that they need are parents who can’t stand one another
    no one benefits at all in situations like that
    You think that the anger makes you feel better but in the end it only causes more drams and heartache

  • Emma

    February 27th, 2017 at 3:27 PM

    Being different from each other doesn’t have to be a bad thing. It can actually be a great way for your child to start to learn to be a little more flexible and fluid.

    Look I know that in an ideal world we wouldn’t have to have disagreements about parenting styles but it is likely that if you have broken up with someone then you probably weren’t always on the same page.

    try to see it as a way that you could actually learn something new and that your kids could potentially learn something new too. Different doesn’t have to mean bad.

  • Sam

    February 28th, 2017 at 12:20 AM

    The article is great advice but difficult if only one parent will take advice and the other is narcissistic and will not work together at all! Also what happens if the damage to the eldest child has already been done…physical and emotional abuse takes years of therapy and she refuses to go to her dad. It’s not always that straight forward unfortunately tho I will try hard to make it better.

  • jennifer M

    February 28th, 2017 at 8:33 AM

    You might know all of this but working with certain people can almost be like banging your head against a wall. It always feels like you are losing no matter how hard you try.

  • terry

    February 28th, 2017 at 2:34 PM

    I am probably the ex that everyone would always complain about because yeah, I am a little lax on the rules side. But I get to see my kids every other weekend, that’s it. Shouldn’t I be able to spend that time with them having some fun instead of having to be a stickler for the rules?

    This was what she wanted, pretty much full custody and with that comes a lot more responsibility. I do my part financially and I just feel like the time that I have with the boys should be about having as much fun as we can together since our time is usually limited, and as they get older it will become even more so.

    I don’t see that there is anything wrong with that.

  • Chris

    June 27th, 2019 at 12:08 PM

    Terry, I know it has been a couple years since you wrote your post, but man-to-man, it is posts like yours that give men a bad name. No man who abandons his children deserves to even continue life, in my opinion. You allowed your ex-wife to take control of your children and you abandoned them to her. A-ban-doned!!!!!!! So what if she has legal custody. So what if she has more physical custody. It is up to men to get past immaturity and put your kids first. You can stay in touch with the schoolwork and activities 24/7. You can get to know each teacher. You can volunteer at school and get involved with kids’ activities so you see them frequently – even if they are not sleeping at your residence that evening. Why give your ex-wife the primary influence over raising YOUR CHILDREN???????
    Your post tells me that you are willing to screw over your kids because you are angry at your ex-wife or because you value playing around more than being a full-time father. And, therefore, it is my opinion that men like you need a major wake-up call. You screw things up for the rest of us men who are trying to be MEN – not delayed adolescent boys who want to play around, rather than show consistent leadership and parenting presence!

  • Mike

    May 26th, 2018 at 11:30 AM

    I am a divorced father of twin girls looking for a better way to co-parent.

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