Zoloft and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety

Childhood anxiety is a serious but often undiagnosed condition. Separation anxiety, social phobia and generalized anxiety are among the most common mental health issues affecting children and adolescents. Anxiety in childhood often predicts the occurrence of such problems later in life.

Identifying and treating anxiety and other mood disorders at early as possible is therefore an important goal of psychiatric research. Undiagnosed mood issues represent a large public health burden and result in a poor quality of life of those affected. The standard treatments for childhood anxiety are antidepressant medications and cognitive behavioral therapy.

Zoloft (sertraline) belongs to the class of antidepressant medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and researchers have identified it as the medication of choice for treating most instances of childhood anxiety. Compared with similar medications, Zoloft offers the greatest benefit to anxiety sufferers with the lowest incidence of adverse side effects. However, as with many antidepressant medications, there is a small risk of suicide or self-harm in children and young adults at the start of a new drug regimen. Those with anxiety rather than depression are less likely to experience these effects. Children and adolescents should be assessed for suicide risk before beginning any antidepressant medication.

Several clinical trials have offered strong evidence that a combination treatment including Zoloft and cognitive behavioral therapy offers the most substantial improvement for children who have been diagnosed with anxiety issues. In one such study, 80% of participants receiving combination treatment saw significant improvement after 12 weeks. Researchers theorize that therapy and medication have a synergistic effect with one enhancing the effects of the other.

Regular therapy sessions also provide an opportunity for children and parents to report side effects from the children’s medication. In the previously mentioned study, both therapy and Zoloft alone also led to improvements on an anxiety rating scale that far outperformed placebo. Most importantly, participants receiving Zoloft did not report more adverse side effects than participants receiving placebo did, and none considered or attempted suicide.

When considering childhood anxiety, the rewards of effective treatment for outweigh the potential risks of medication. A combination of weekly cognitive behavioral therapy sessions and prescription of the antidepressant medication Zoloft seems to promise the best results for the greatest number of patients. As always, attending physicians must prescribe drugs like Zoloft cautiously, especially to children and adolescents.

References:

  1. Sertraline – PubMed Health. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved April 6, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001017/
  2. Walkup, J.T., Albano, A.M., Piacentini, J., Birhamer, B., Compton, S.N., Sherrill, J.T., Ginsburg, G.S. et al. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline, or a combination in childhood anxiety. New England Journal of Medicine, 359, (26), 2753-2766.

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