Premature Babies at Increased Risk for Depression and Anxiety

According to a new study led by A.C. Burnett of the Department of Psychology at the University of Melbourne in Australia, children born prematurely and with low birth weights (LBW) are three-and-a-half times more likely to develop mental health problems such as depression and anxiety than normal birth weight (NBW) children. Children born prematurely are already at increased risk for physical health problems, learning disabilities, and other cognitive challenges. Some research has provided evidence that children who are born prematurely are at a higher risk for behavioral problems and even attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). But until now, there has been little evidence suggesting that these children are also more vulnerable to mood disorders and mental health problems later in life.

In order to examine the relationship between LBW and mental health problems, Burnett analyzed previous studies and looked specifically at prematurity/LBW and how it influenced the development of anxiety and depression in adolescence and young adulthood. Burnett assessed data that was published between 1995 and 2010 and included individuals born prematurely with LBW, ranging in age from 10 to 25 years old. After review, Burnett discovered that children who were born prematurely and had LBW had a significantly higher risk than NBW peers, for the development of psychiatric problems later in life. In particular, the study revealed that the LBW participants were three times more likely to develop an anxiety or depressive disorder in adolescence or young adulthood than those who were born full-term.

The results of this study, the first of its kind, have significant clinical implications. Burnett believes that professionals treating the physical and cognitive impairments in LBW children should be aware of the negative psychological predisposition that these children possess, paying particular attention to mental health needs during adolescence and young adulthood. Burnett added, “The studies reviewed here indicate that, in addition to monitoring and management of medical and cognitive sequelae, the psychological well-being of formerly preterm individuals should be a key part of ongoing care in collaboration between clinicians, individuals and their families.”

Reference:
Burnett, A. C., Anderson, P. J., Cheong J., Doyle, L. W., Davey, C. G., Wood, S. J. Prevalence of Psychiatric Diagnoses in Preterm and Full-term Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 41.12 (2011): 2463-474. Print.

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  • 47 comments
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  • George

    George

    February 3rd, 2012 at 3:51 PM

    You know, I have learned a lot from the reading that I do here and at other sites. But sometimes I do kind of feel like with some sub groups we are pigeonholing them into a box and are just setting them up to become something that in essence they don’t have to become, but we expect that so they do! It frustrates me, because I honestly feel like there are so many people who have potential but we have said bad things about them all their lives so that is what they have come to believe and will become! Can’t we just let things develop as they will and encourage rather than impede?

  • David

    David

    November 29th, 2016 at 5:38 PM

    I was born 2 months premature. I am now 26 years old. I am an only child, so I guess the sole focus of my parents’ attention was me. I did reasonably well in primary and high school, but always felt “different” and slightly “off.” I am quite neurotic by nature, sometimes struggle with anxiety, and probably have some sort of ADD, which I am currently getting a look into. Im not particularly hyperactive or disruptive by any means, I just can’t sit still for long periods, get distracted by almost anything and am constantly looking and observing the external world – constantly looking for some sort of stimulation. So I guess not being cooked in the oven long enough may have contributed to this; I don’t really know for sure

  • kalli

    kalli

    November 30th, 2016 at 8:25 AM

    I’ve posted before but I’m 30 and was 4 months premature. I struggle with anxiety and even wake up with anxiety attacks! I have trouble staying stimulated at work and when I get bored I usually resign. I am fairly intelligent but struggle to stay on task and always am afraid of being stuck and unhappy. Emotionally I am very off, I am very cool and aloof even though I come across as caring, I’ve worked hard at it for years. I can’t tell if I’m more of an extrovert or introvert (like it matters) but for job purposes it does. I am very independent (only child here, parents and family doted on me) but I grew up decently adjusted and not bratty. I’m definitely not needy and have trouble in my marriage showing affection and closeness. It’s not very fun. I’m considering counseling or therapy to help with anxiety since I can’t do much medication. I hope we can all cope and even though most don’t understand, we know we aren’t an island anymore and have others we can talk to who get it.

  • Earl

    Earl

    February 3rd, 2012 at 7:59 PM

    Why do premature births/low weight births actually happen? Is it due to a complication in the pregnancy or is it something that is determined during the formation of the zygote itself? If it is the latter then we may just have enough time to do something about it I think. What do the others think?

  • Maureen G

    Maureen G

    February 4th, 2012 at 5:41 AM

    George, in some ways I agree with you wholeheartedly. It is not fair to determine that someone is going to have problems even before they show the signs. However I think that this is simply suggesting that we take a more proactive stance to preventing these kinds of things from occurrin if we can. That means keeping an eye on the situatons as they present themselves and being on the ready with tools and resources that we can utilize to help prevent as much of this as we can. It will not always work, but sometimes it will, and we have to at least try to make a difference if we can/

  • Jemma

    Jemma

    February 5th, 2012 at 5:31 AM

    I wonder if these children learn from their parents that they were born early, that it was early and scary, and that this could influence their own future behavior

  • JB

    JB

    April 4th, 2012 at 10:55 AM

    Thank you thank you for this article. wish my parents and & I had been told this by my various medical professionals when i was a child. i was born premie at 2 lbs 31 years ago and have had anxiety and depression problems that have been mislabeled by mental health professionals. it’s a fact that premies brains are just cognitively and structurally different (in my case the bridge between my left & right brain hemispheres is very small, I have problems with spatial ability but I have well above average IQ). Each brain is unique and it’s not a one size fits all solution for everyone dealing with depression & anxiety.

  • del

    del

    July 27th, 2012 at 7:15 PM

    Reading the comments leaves me feeling pretty riled up. Someone does a medical study that measures a correlation between premature birth and increased risk of depression and anxiety.

    No one said “if your child was born premature they will become depressed and anxious. George and Maureen , you are choosing to respond to a generalization that wasn’t made. My reaction is influenced by my own experience. My 10yo son was born at 37 weeks- my wife was bored with bed rest and wanted to get his birth over and done with, thinking there was no risk. He was a healthy , sweet baby and had a great time until the age of 7. He is intellectually gifted, but struggles with acute anxiety. Its sad to see a sweet boy burst in tears many times a day. We dont know the root cause – perhaps his birth weight has nothing to do with it? or maybe it does?

    But more research can lead to greater more understanding that can help boys like my son. I am acutely aware that he *might* be on a path that leads to a painful future.

  • Bob

    Bob

    August 3rd, 2012 at 2:22 AM

    Must say that I finally found the roots of my problems which I am trying to beat from my 15 years. I have got depressions, anxiety dissorders, psychosis and bipolar dissorder. I am on medication from my 15 years old, now I am 35. I was born in 32 week with birth weight sligthly below 1 kg…

  • kalli

    kalli

    October 21st, 2016 at 8:02 AM

    I am 30 years old and was born at 20 weeks. (4 months early) my math is horrible. I weighed 1 lb 8 oz, stayed 6 months in NICU. Thankfully I am pretty healthy, hit milestones and graduated with honors in high school and college. I am married and work. I struggled with anxiety my whole life from having what we know now as separation anxiety and having anxiety attacks daily until 5th grade; (some of the problem was an external factor of losing many loved ones while @ school). While the anxiety attacks have lessened, lately I have had more than I’ve had in almost a decade. I’ve had some more health issues but I am very thankful and blessed to be here.

  • Mary

    Mary

    November 13th, 2012 at 4:29 AM

    THANK YOU FOR THIS STUDY!!! My daughter has been struggling with deep depression for a few years now and is 17. She is on meds, sees therapist and is in a day treatment program at Rogers Memorial right now. She was born 32 weeks weighing 2 pounds 11oz. She is very intelligent but as of yet has not been able to understand or beat this depression. The cognitive development key here may be our hope to understanding a bit better. Any suggestions, comments that can also aid us I MORE THAN WELCOME.THANK YOU!

  • Victoria M.

    Victoria M.

    July 8th, 2016 at 7:34 PM

    Hi,

    How is your daughter doing?

    Victoria

  • Mel

    Mel

    December 6th, 2012 at 4:00 AM

    I am 30, and was born at 26 weeks gestation. I feel I have struggled with anxiety and depression for as long as I can remember. For me it is almost good to understand that there might be a reason for how I’ve felt, and that I need to learn to live with it, rather than listen to others who expect me to just be able to get over it one day.

    Mary, maybe your daughter could try something like MoodGym, which is an online initiative that uses Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) to help people recognise and challenge negative and unhelpful thoughts that may otherwise contribute to feelings of depression and anxiety.
    Sorry for the late reply. If you ever need to talk, just let me know :)

  • Victoria M.

    Victoria M.

    July 8th, 2016 at 7:35 PM

    Thanks for this, Mel!!! :)

  • Elizabeth

    Elizabeth

    January 25th, 2013 at 7:56 AM

    My 17 year old daughter was born at 27 wks weighing 2 lbs, 7 oz. We always considered ourselves fortunate that she seemingly suffered no long-term effects; however since the 5th grade she has suffered from acute anxiety to the point she is now in therapy,on medication, and homeschooled. She is a beautiful, intelligent girl and we are grateful for each day. I have always had a suspicion that her prematurity may have been the cause of this anxiety disorder and this study validates that for me.

  • Laura

    Laura

    February 12th, 2013 at 4:19 PM

    I am 26 battling depression and anxiety since I was 14, I was born at 22.5 week gestation and weighed 1 pound 5 ounces, was supposed to be born blind, deaf and have CP, 20% chance of living. After researching, I may have found my answers as to why. This site, it may have saved my life. SO THANK YOU

  • Charity

    Charity

    June 15th, 2015 at 6:50 PM

    this is Amazing information! I was 26 weeks gestation.. Have CP, anxiety and depression. 40 yrs old. I asked my counselor last year if my premature birth and first 3 months of life being in incubator could have contributed to my anxiety…. She didn’t know how to answer that!!!! Also have osteopenia… Prob complication of preemie too.

  • Tory

    Tory

    February 10th, 2014 at 6:37 PM

    Hi all,
    I was born at 27 weeks and weighed 1 lb. 12.5 oz. I am twenty years old, and have also suffered from anxiety, to the point where sometimes it seems like I just overanalyze everything.

    I am just now learning to live without anxiety and manage my work and studying better.

    I feel that all of you are kindred spirits and we may understand what each other are going through!

    Sincerely,
    Victoria

  • Kalli

    Kalli

    April 7th, 2014 at 6:00 PM

    Hi everyone!
    I was born at 24 weeks and weighed 1lb 8 oz. I stayed 6 months in hospital and am legally blind (but have decent sight thanks to glasses). I also was diagnosed 2 years ago with fibromyalgia. I am now 28. I am pretty smart, but suffer with high anxiety, even though I’m a laid back person. I also have battled with depression. But I’m still here and that’s a miracle!!

  • Lori

    Lori

    April 22nd, 2014 at 5:54 PM

    I am 46 and was born at 32 weeks. I weighed 5lbs. I have suffered from anxiety for most of my life.

  • Alicia

    Alicia

    April 30th, 2014 at 4:39 PM

    Hi all – I’m another living example of what this study describes. I was born at 27 weeks gestation and was 3 lbs when born. I stayed in an incubator for 6-10 weeks (my parents disagree how long it was). Ever since the age of 11 I’ve suffered from anxiety and depression. I started getting OCD tendencies and then fell into a deep depression. I had to take antidepressants in middle school and that helped. I was also pretty antisocial and never wanted to get involved in anything. I was very shy. Does anyone else have those social experiences? In all of my little kid pictures I also noticed that I look particularly angry. Apparently I was a very moody little child. I remember being very shy and angry all the time.

    I continue to suffer from anxiety and depression and sometimes feel overwhelmed and like I’ll never be able to escape them. I also struggle with the idea that being in an incubator for so long without normal human contact (most babies are being held by their mothers for hours and hours each day in those first few months whereas my mom was only allowed to hold me for 10 minutes) may have had some affect on me now and my ability to allow a deep connection with anyone. Anyone else have this experience?

  • Lea

    Lea

    May 23rd, 2016 at 6:10 PM

    I was born 3 months early. Weighing at 1 pound 12 ounces. I am a premie. I was in the hospital for 6 months. I am
    14. And so I have battled (secretly) anxiety and depression for a while. When I was little, I was very angry. (Still am) I used to have these horrible tantrums and was always mad and irritated. I still have temper tantrums at age 14. And I am still angry. All the time. My parents recently found out that I have been feeling sad. But they never said anything about depression until I looked it up myself. It’s scary. So no your not alone anyone. It’s ok. It gets better gradually but surely it does.

  • Victoria M.

    Victoria M.

    July 8th, 2016 at 7:39 PM

    You will be able to connect when you find the right person! Many people struggle with anxiety. The key is often spending time and energy on and with those who love you, care for you and treat you well.
    I also tend to make lists of the good things in my life and my strong attributes and positive qualities to remind myself that everything is going to be okay.

  • Emily

    Emily

    July 14th, 2014 at 1:32 PM

    To Alisha above me:
    I have had these suspicions as well concerning myself since I was barely held and touched with a rubber glove for sterilization through an incubator in my early weeks of life. I agree with the moodiness growing up and being antisocial – I now realize all of my over-the-top worrying and reactive behaviours were probably connected with the anxiety and I do think the lack of physical connection had a big effect on this. I have always felt that there was something inherently different or wrong about myself, and I believe one of those reasons is changes in cognitive growth compared to normal babies and its ability to make me unable to form true, strong connections with others like yourself.
    I hope this helps a little bit since I have been thinking about this for a long time and have similar experiences to yourself!

  • Ellie

    Ellie

    August 9th, 2014 at 4:12 PM

    I’m now 21, as of July 5th. Was born at 24 weeks and have always suffered with severe high anxiety about everything and everyone – it’s do interesting reading on here – Alicia, who mentioned the fact that your mother cannot hold you. The same as my mother: I spent 5 1/2 months in special care, incubators, wtc, you guys know the scene! Again, because I was so ill, my parents could barely hold me for longer than 10 mins. I’ve always over analysed everything, and my relationships where I like someone have always been so so hard – I think because I’m afraid to trust anyone: retch. I felt, reading these, that someone finally understood!! How are preemies brains so different to full term: what happens to us that we become neurotic, highly anxiety etc? These problems have got progressively worse as I’ve got older and I’ve finally hit a severe depression: on anti depressants etc. I feel kike someone finally has put my thoughts into words reading thes comments!

  • Juan

    Juan

    August 15th, 2014 at 11:54 PM

    Um all theses comments make me wana cry because I’m the same way and I feel like I’m all bottled up inside plus my flaws make me even more depressed and I wish I was just normal :’/ I don’t even know how I made it this far now that I realize

  • Dee

    Dee

    August 28th, 2014 at 8:14 PM

    I so appreciate this posts. My son was born at 32 weeks and weighed 4 pounds 10 ounces. He is now 16 and after prompting from his doctor, finally admitted that he has been depressed since he was 12 or 13. I had no idea. Over the past 2 years, I had noticed him become more withdrawn and antisocial and seemed more and more unhappy. He doesn’t like to leave his house, stays in his room most of the day, playing computer games. He refused to talk about what was going on with him. He lost over 30 pounds in 5 months, and still, it didn’t occur to me he was depressed. He told me he doesn’t know why he just can’t feel happy. This broke my heart. But I am glad he finally told me after holding it in for 4 years.

  • Deanna

    Deanna

    May 18th, 2015 at 11:51 AM

    Good for you, mom for getting him some help! I just turned 38 a few days ago and I’ve just recently learned about this. I was a 32 weeker. I weighed 2 lbs. 10oz and have suffered for years from a roller coaster of emotions. I was about your boy’s age when I really started struggling with depression and my uneducated parents didn’t know much about it and thought I was just being a hypochondriac drama queen who cried all the time, begged for attention, and was never happy. In truth, it was the total opposite. I hated the way I felt, I wanted to be happy and I wish my body didn’t hurt. It’s rather nice to know I wasn’t actually crazy!!

  • Kianna

    Kianna

    October 14th, 2014 at 7:40 PM

    Im 24 years old and that explains why ive been having terrible anxiety all these years! I could never understand why I got it so bad but now I know! Now I need to find a way to get rid of it and get back to being normal and not having the feeling of being trapped or scared to do anything! Only God can help me now

  • Christina

    Christina

    December 16th, 2014 at 5:49 AM

    I’m right there with you guys, born at around 25 weeks I was isolated, could not be held except to be dangled and ‘patted’ when I would stop breathing. My twin brother was so underdeveloped that he died of complications when we were 18 months, out of the woods you would have thought. At 28 I’m looking back on years of separation anxiety(terror), periods of GAD and anxiety related procrastination which led to more anxiety and so on. I just have to look forward with an eye on what disasters I’ve expected in the past and not experienced and a view of what will be, will be. Prayer and trusting in God to be looking for my best interests and leading me away from sin is the main thing that’s got me this far. Guys, it’s a MIRACLE of God that we’re even alive, some premmies are just stillbirths. God preserved us for a reason, search him out! His love is so much stronger than any human love you may have or have missed out on. He will carry your burdens, forgive your sins and change you from the inside if you let him. Jesus died in our place to make that possible, the first death comes to us all, but the second death will not touch those who trust in Jesus.

  • Deanna

    Deanna

    May 18th, 2015 at 11:37 AM

    Absolutely, Christina! Jeremiah 29:11 speaks volumes

  • Charles

    Charles

    June 1st, 2015 at 4:22 PM

    Can you help me on what you did to have a true relationship with Jesus? Im 27 weeks preemie and struggled with anxiety, pessimism, and depression all my life. I was born believing in a semi christian family but right now im having a hard time dealing with myself.

  • Charlie

    Charlie

    June 16th, 2015 at 4:54 PM

    Hello Can I contact you. Just wanting to talk to another preemie about this issue we face

  • Charlie

    Charlie

    June 16th, 2015 at 4:54 PM

    Just wanting to talk to another preemie about this issue we face. Mind if I get in touch with you or anyone else here?

  • Christina

    Christina

    August 18th, 2017 at 3:31 AM

    Hi Charlie,
    I hope you’re doing okay. I’ve just come across your reply to my comment. It’s been a long time since I was a Christian now and I actually feel much less anxious as a result. Through a huge amount of study encouraged by my church (oops church!), I came to see how insubstantial the evidence was that Christianity was any more than a disparate set of conflicting myths just like all the other religions of this world. Now that I no longer feel that I am inherently evil, in need of a saviour and under constant surveillance I don’t look at myself so harshly or feel that everything in life is so crucial or a potential disaster.

    What I would suggest you do is write a brief history of your life and then read it as though it’s about someone else. It really helps to give you a level of compassion toward yourself. This is not the same as self pity either so don’t worry about that.

    I have discovered that I have ADHD which is a developmental disorder which is associated with low dopamine levels in the brain. This is a disorder which often appears alongside either dyslexia or dyspraxia and can leave people feeling like they are always playing catch up in life. I felt like a dreadful, lazy failure for most of my life as a result of something I now know to be a common and treatable issue.

    I hope you have found some help since your comment and sincerely wish you all the best. I also recommend you to read a book called Sapiens by Yuval Noah Harari. I am reading it at the moment and it is facinating, we really are creatures of this planet and I have found I would love to understand better who we really are as a species. It seems to me we have not fallen from grace, but are now struggling to rise into our full potential.

  • Andrew P.

    Andrew P.

    March 23rd, 2015 at 7:50 AM

    I was born 2-3 months premature. I spent the first year of my life 8n and out of hospital and in a humidicrib (I now have a high tolerance to humidity). I have scars under both armpits and my cheeks from all the tubes. I have a speech impediment but after 20 years of speech therapy it’s much better. When I was younger I had a lot of Occupational Therapy to improve my coordination (which still isn’t great).

    I’ve had issues with anxiety and depression and feel like I’m “coming from behind” with my development. It’s improving but I often feel inferior to “normal” people, not helped by being very hard on myself. I’m trying hard to better myself but it’s a struggle sometimes.

  • JoAnn H

    JoAnn H

    April 29th, 2015 at 12:52 PM

    I was born in 1952 two months premature and i’d like to know the complication physical and mental and a premature baby tomorrow would have been then compared to now in 2015

  • Sandra W

    Sandra W

    December 22nd, 2016 at 8:29 PM

    JoAnn H… I was born at 28 weeks in 1952. I have been looking for the same info you seek also. I never considered the impact of my birth until this year. My parents told me little about my birth but I read that incubators were new in 1952. There was no equipment to help with breathing or feeding except thru an eye dropper. Many babies went blind from too much oxygen. I do not know if I was in one or not My parents were over protective and I coped with fears of abandonment and not feeling bonded to my family and difficulties feeling like I fit-in. It’s been very helpful reading these posts as I’ve never met another person my age who was born premature.

  • Kristy

    Kristy

    May 19th, 2015 at 8:19 PM

    My daughter was born at 25 weeks, weighing just 1lb 3 oz. She was in an incubator for 3 month on a high power ventilator and couldn’t be held. She is almost 5 and also suffers from heightened levels of anxiety and separation anxiety with only me. We are starting therapy with her next month and I am hopeful that it will help, especially since we have caught it early on. Any suggestions on strategies that have work for any of you?

  • benny m

    benny m

    June 3rd, 2015 at 9:39 AM

    My daughter has significant depression and anxiety,she is 19, born 1.750kg at 38 weeks, should I tell her the source of her depression is being born preterm?

  • Earl J.

    Earl J.

    July 23rd, 2015 at 8:36 AM

    I was born at 26 weeks, one pound and change…to be honest, it’s a hard life, and people are so judgemental with total ignorance regarding the struggle we face. I have struggled socially in regard to friendship and especially love – being nearly blind in one eye, lacking depth perception did not make social situations easier. I do not have CP nor am I low-intelligence, but I suffer from depression, anxiety, severe soul crushing loneliness – this has been my world on and off again since around 7 years old, some years have been wonderful, other years horrificly painful. I am 32 now. I would like to set up some type of Facebook group, or something – I think we could all help one another in ways others perhaps cannot, due to our extremely similar experiances.

    Earl

  • cayla

    cayla

    August 18th, 2015 at 12:01 AM

    I was born premature for 7 months and i was incubated for 2 months. Now I’m 13 dealing with depression and anxiety. I often think negative thoughts.

  • Natalie

    Natalie

    September 26th, 2015 at 9:47 AM

    Hi, I was born 2.5 months premature and I have had anxiety and depression since I was 12. I am now 24. I wish I knew about this when I was younger. Does anyone know why it happens? How come doctors never say anything? :(

  • M. L. O

    M. L. O

    October 24th, 2015 at 6:41 AM

    Hi.

    I am a 35 year old man who was born after 7.5 months. Throughout my adult life I have never been able to establish friendships. People I meet look up to me and respect me and I’m told I have a beautiful personality and even my psychiatrist is amazed of my ability to grasp things, yet through my life as an adult I don’t think I have had a visitor in my house and I don’t receive phone calls from anyone except my mother, work or phone salespersons. . . I have never really known anything else than loneliness. I feel there is a part of me that did not get a chance to develop. I avoid people and conversations, yet I would still love to be able to take part and feel the urge to socialise, but I’m just not able and feel akward and uncomfortable in every situation. I have ended up as a functional alcoholic with a lot of inner conversations. I have long suspected some of these issues of social anxiety may be caused by me being born too early.

  • layalli

    layalli

    March 16th, 2017 at 1:22 AM

    Hi, my daughter was born at 26 weeks weighing .765 grams (1lb 10 oz) soo very tiny and she was in hospital 3 months. Ever since aged 4 she has had anxiety, she is now 11 and we have just decided to medicate her after 8 long years of trying everything else we can; cognitive therapy, meditation, Linden Method, lavender, oils, aromatherpy etc etc . Now she is doing somuch better, and this is also where I learnt that being a premature baby was a major factor in her getting anxiety. She is now doing really well (on meds) and we go back to doctor for check up next week. Am so very happy. And knowing that being premature had a large bearing on causing her to have anxiety, has helped me a lot.

  • Heather

    Heather

    August 17th, 2017 at 7:22 AM

    My daughter (now 22 years old) was born at 28 weeks and weighed 2lbs. She had the odd medical issue growing up but nothing major but now has major anxiety and is generally terrified of new people and although she is going to uni doesn’t have any friends and shuts herself in her room most of the time. She is very bright but at present is unlikely to be able to use that intelligence because I don’t think she will be able to cope with work. She has never had help with this and people I have spoken to don’t see any connection with her prem birth – coming across this is a real revelation.

  • Ken D

    Ken D

    November 29th, 2017 at 4:34 PM

    Just wondering if drugs used to stop premature delivery could be the cause of childhood anxiety. One of our sons has suffered from anxiety from a very young age. He was not born prematurely but labour was stopped using drugs twice. Both at twenty weeks and again at thirty six weeks. I haven’t been able to find any information to suggest this could be a possibility but, over the years, we have met two other families with children that have anxiety problems and in both situations the mothers had gone into premature labour and had it stopped using drugs.
    Has anyone else had similar experiences?

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