Schizophrenia is characterized by a disintegration of thinking processes and emotional responsiveness. It is most commonly manifested through delusions, auditory hallucinations, disorganized thinking and speech, and paranoid delusions and may affect social or occupational functioning depending on symptoms and severity. Finding a therapist or counselor to work with can help those affected with schizophrenia to increase social skills, develop higher self-esteem, and gain insight to the mental health issues accompanying the condition.
The exact cause of schizophrenia is unknown, but researchers believe it is influenced by a combination of factors including genetics and environment. Schizophrenia is significantly affected by heredity, and its onset is often exacerbated by environmental stressors. Symptoms generally occur in young adulthood, and the condition may be diagnosed based on a person's self-reported experiences and observed behaviors. The reliability of a schizophrenia diagnosis is generally high, although some symptoms do overlap with those of major depression and bipolar.
Schizophrenia is believed to be a brain-based condition, but there is currently no test or brain scan that can diagnose it. Some people with schizophrenia see several doctors before they are properly diagnosed, and a diagnosis typically relies partially on self-reports as well as the doctor's own observations of the person and the behavior. Some people may also provide insight from friends and family. Generally, a person who experiences delusions or hallucinations, disrupted relationships, difficulty functioning in everyday life, and disorganized speech or thinking will be diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Some of the oldest written documents about schizophrenia originate from Pharaonic Egypt. The condition is also mentioned in some ancient Greek and Roman literature. Until the 19th century, it was somewhat widely believed that people experiencing mental health problems such as schizophrenia were possessed by demons.
In 1887, German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin described a set of symptoms we now associate with schizophrenia and used the term "dementia praecox" to classify it. He chose this name because he believed dementia praecox was a form of dementia that primarily affected the brain. In 1911, a Swiss psychiatrist named Eugen Bleuler coined the term schizophrenia for the symptoms Kraepelin had previously observed, realizing this state was not quite the same as dementia. Bleuler is also credited with separating the symptoms of schizophrenia into "positive" and "negative" categories. In the 20th century, both the definition and diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia were modified, and scientists have continued their efforts to understand the condition. Today, many researchers are closely examining genetics to understand how to better recognize, treat, and diagnose schizophrenia.
The term schizophrenia has Greek roots: It combines the words schizo, to split, and phrene, the mind. This term references a disruption of the balance between thinking, perception, memory, and personality.
As with many other mental health issues, schizophrenia is often misunderstood. Media, pop culture, and stereotypes have all created many persisting myths about the condition. These myths contribute to the stigmatization and discrimination of people who experience schizophrenia.
Myth: People experiencing schizophrenia are violent and dangerous.
Truth: There are some risk factors to be aware of with schizophrenia symptoms, but there is not much difference when it comes to violent behavior and crime rates between people experiencing schizophrenia and the general population. When those with schizophrenia take medication regularly and do not combine it with other drugs or alcohol, they are no more likely to commit a violent crime than any other member of the general population.
Myth: Schizophrenia and multiple personalities are the same.
Truth: Multiple personalities refers to a condition called dissociative identity. Schizophrenia and dissociative identity are two different mental health conditions. This misconception often derives from pop culture and the word schizophrenia, which roughly translates to split mind. However, the "split" in this case refers to a split from reality, not necessarily a split in personality.
Myth: People with schizophrenia must be hospitalized.
Truth: Sometimes people who experience schizophrenia need hospitalization to ensure good treatment. Contrary to popular belief, however, only a small minority of people experiencing schizophrenia will require a long-term stay in a mental health facility. Most who experience this condition can live comfortably with their families or within supportive housing communities.
Schizophrenia can manifest as a broad range of symptoms with variations in severity and patterns from person to person. The symptoms of this condition can also change over time. They are commonly divided into two categories: positive and negative.
Positive symptoms represent changes in thoughts and behavior that are not part of usual functioning. They include:
- Delusion of reference (when someone interprets that an ordinary object has a special relationship with them)
- Delusion of persecution
- Delusion of control (when someone believes someone or something is trying to exercise control over them)
- Delusion of grandeur
- Disorganized speech
- Disorganized behavior
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia refer to a lack of common behaviors and emotions. Sometimes they are hard to recognize because of the similarity with other mental health conditions such as depression. These symptoms include:
- A lack of emotional expression characterized by a flat or monotonous voice, lack of eye contact, and lack of facial expression
- A lack of interest in everyday life and difficulties with motivation
- Inability to feel pleasure
- Social withdrawal
Psychotherapy is widely recommended and used in treating schizophrenia. In severe episodes of schizophrenia, hospitalization may occur. This may be voluntary or involuntary based on the situation. Schizophrenia may lead to other medical issues that need to be treated.
A combination of psychotherapy and psychotropic medication is one of the most recommended treatment approaches for schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medications are often used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia. These medications affect neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. There are two groups of antipsychotic medication for treating schizophrenia:
- Typical (conventional) antipsychotics: These are also referred to as first-generation antipsychotics. They have a greater potential for causing side effects than newer atypical antipsychotics. This group contains drugs such as Thorazine (chlorpromazine), Prolixin (fluphenazine), Haldol (haloperidol), and Trilafon (perphenazine).
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- Atypical antipsychotics: This class of antipsychotics typically has a lower risk of developing severe side effects. Some atypical antipscyhotics include Abilify (aripiprazole), Clozaril (clozapine), and Risperdal (risperidone).
The aim of treating schizophrenia with antipsychotics is to control symptoms with the lowest possible dosage. Sometimes psychiatrists or physicians will try various medications, dosages, and combinations of drugs to achieve the best results for the person being treated. In certain cases they may prescribe antianxiety medications or antidepressants.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) defines schizophrenia as a mental disorder characterized by disintegrating emotional responsiveness and thought processes. There are five different types of schizophrenia listed:
- Catatonic – involves motorological and psychological disturbances; also known as catatonia
- Disorganized – involves reality distortion (delusions and hallucinations) and psychomotor poverty (poverty of speech); also known as foldermenia
- Paranoid – thought disorder and disorganized behavior are absent but hallucinations and delusions are present
- Residual – involves low-intensity positive symptoms
- Undifferentiated – psychotic symptoms are present, but criteria for the above types have not been met
Over the years schizophrenia has made appearances in popular culture. The life of John Nash, a mathematician who lived with paranoid schizophrenia, is portrayed in the film A Beautiful Mind. Nash is shown to be highly intelligent and able to combat his illness with treatment, but the media often depicts those with schizophrenia as unstable or incurable, which may contribute to the stigmatizing idea that people with schizophrenia are "crazy" or dangerous.
The movie Shutter Island, a popular psychological thriller, also portrays an individual who lives with schizophrenia. The story follows a man who is hospitalized on Shutter Island in an institution for criminals who experience various debilitating mental health issues. The main character shows many positive symptoms of schizophrenia, with the dominant one being the delusion that someone on the island is trying to manipulate him.
Clean, Shaven is a movie that offers an objective glimpse into the reality of a person experiencing schizophrenia. The film examines symptoms such as auditory hallucinations, dissociative emotions, disconcerting images, anxiety, and paranoia. The plot follows a young father with schizophrenia who attempts to get his daughter back from the family who adopted her. His fight to do so, as he struggles with his mental health condition, gives valuable insight into the inner world of a person who has troubles that many people can relate to while experiencing the additional challenge of a debilitating mental health concern.
- Jablensky, A. (2010). The diagnostic concept of schizophrenia: its history, evolution, and future prospects. Dialogues in Clinical NeuroSciences. 12(3): 271–287. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181977/
- Macalester College. (n.d.). Some Common Misconceptions of Schizophrenia. Retrieved from http://www.macalester.edu/psychology/whathap/ubnrp/DopaHypoWeb04/anava_page_8.html
- Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Schizophrenia. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/schizophrenia/basics/treatment/con-20021077
- National Health Service. (n.d.). Symptoms of schizophrenia. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Schizophrenia/Pages/Symptoms.aspx
- National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). What is schizophrenia? Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/index.shtml
- Northeast Ohio Medical University. (n.d.). Myths and Facts About Schizophrenia. Retrieved from http://www.neomed.edu/academics/bestcenter/helpendstigma/myths-and-facts-about-schizophrenia
- Schizophrenia diagnosis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/schizophrenia/guide/schizophrenia-tests
- UNC Center for Excellence in Community Mental Health. (n.d.). Myths About Mental Illness. Retrieved from http://www.med.unc.edu/psych/cecmh/patient-client-information/patient-client-information-and-resources/clients-and-familes-resources/myths-about-mental-illness
Last updated: 12-04-2015
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