How Does Complex Trauma Affect Cardiovascular Disease?

Indoor image of mature man lost in a memory.Traumatic stress involves a threat to a person’s life or physical integrity. It can have a profound impact on the brain, nervous system, and peripheral bodily systems. The impact of trauma on our emotional and mental health is discussed at length in the literature. However, trauma’s impact on the peripheral body (the peripheral nervous system, as well as the muscles and internal organs it connects to) is less understood. Said impact is often not considered in primary health care or even a therapist’s office.

Physicians and therapists need to understand that trauma impacts more than emotional and mental health. While the mechanism is not fully understood, we know from large, population-based studies that traumatic stress is a factor in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). An investigation that was conducted across diverse populations showed that people experiencing depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety are at an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease.

How trauma affects the heart

Trauma is associated with behavioral factors that affect heart health and lead to an increased risk for CVD. Individuals with a history of trauma are more likely to:

In addition, evidence suggests there are biological effects of traumatic stress that occur independently of behavior. For example, individuals with past trauma show elevated biological markers of inflammation. In other words, traumatic stress increases inflammation in the body. In turn, inflammation has been shown to increase the risk of CVD. The effects of traumatic stress on inflammation and the subsequent link to CVD is likely to play a key role in the causal connection between trauma and CVD.

The effects of trauma on inflammation seem to hold over time. A study designed to assess trauma and inflammation looked at a sample of 1,021 individuals aged 40-90 years. Higher lifetime trauma exposure was linked to increased levels of biological markers of inflammation at baseline and after five years.

Complex trauma

Complex trauma and its related condition, Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD), is different than PTSD. The cause of PTSD can be a one-time incident or group of incidents such as combat, a natural disaster, or a car accident. Meanwhile, complex trauma results from exposure to ongoing trauma over an extended period of time. Child abuse or neglect and ongoing interpersonal (relationship) trauma tend to meet the criteria for complex trauma.

The data suggest that taking steps to take better care of our bodies is extra important if we have a history of trauma. Prolonged trauma over the course of childhood results in a different cluster of symptoms and outcomes. It is sometimes more difficult to diagnose and treat. Clients with a history of prolonged trauma are exposed to elevated risk for CVD on multiple levels. Studies have found that the cumulative effects of prolonged trauma are associated with elevated levels of inflammation and have the most potent effects on one’s physical health.

What can be done today?

Studies show patients with CVD demonstrate higher biological markers of inflammation following acute mental stress as well as higher levels of circulating stress hormones. In addition to the ongoing physiological effects, childhood trauma exposure is also associated with unhealthy behaviors that further increase the risk of developing CVD.

In some cases, gaining a better understanding of how state-of-mind and health habits affect our bodies in a concrete way (such as cardiovascular risk) motivates us to make changes. The data suggest that taking steps to take better care of our bodies is extra important if we have a history of trauma. Similarly, taking steps to care for our mental health can mitigate the damage that PTSD and C-PTSD can inflict.

Therapeutic interventions are effective for PTSD and related symptoms. A trained professional can teach you strategies to deal with difficult emotions such as fear, worry, anger, and sadness. They can also help you with emotion regulation by providing the support necessary for healing.

Dealing with trauma needs to be a holistic venture, where the body, emotions, and mind are all addressed and nurtured. In addition to taking steps to improve physical health, individuals are also encouraged to seek therapy to protect their heart on every level possible.

References:

  1. de Assis, M. A., de Mello, M. F., Scorza, F. A., Cadrobbi, M. P., Schooedl, A. F., de Silva, S. G., … & Arida, R. M. (2008). Evaluation of physical activity habits in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinics, 63(4), 473-478.
  2. Feldner, M. T., Babson, K. A., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2007). Smoking, traumatic event exposure, and post-traumatic stress: A critical review of the empirical literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(1), 14-45.
  3. Giourou, E., Skokou, M., Andrew, S. P., Alexopoulou, K., Gourzis, P., & Jelastopulu, E. (2018). Complex posttraumatic stress disorder: The need to consolidate a distinct clinical syndrome or to reevaluate features of psychiatric disorders following interpersonal trauma?. World Journal of Psychiatry, 8(1), 12-19.
  4. Hendrickson, C. M., Neylan, T. C., Na, B., Regan, M., Zhang, Q., & Cohen, B. E. (2013). Lifetime trauma exposure and prospective cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: findings from the Heart and Soul Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(9), 849-855.
  5. Kop, W. J., Weissman, N. J., Zhu, J., Bonsall, R. W., Doyle, M., Stretch, M. R., … & Tracy, R. P. (2008). Effects of acute mental stress and exercise on inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease and healthy controls. The American Journal of Cardiology, 101(6), 767-773.
  6. Kuhl, E. A., Fauerbach, J. A., Bush, D. E., & Ziegelstein, R. C. (2009). Relation of anxiety and adherence to risk-reducing recommendations following myocardial infarction. The American Journal of Cardiology, 103(12), 1629-1634.
  7. Martens, E. J., de Jonge, P., Na, B., Cohen, B. E., Lett, H., & Whooley, M. A. (2010). Scared to death? Generalized anxiety disorder and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease: The Heart and Soul Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 750-758.
  8. von Känel, R., Hepp, U., Kraemer, B., Traber, R., Keel, M., Mica, L., & Schnyder, U. (2007). Evidence for low-grade systemic proinflammatory activity in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41(9), 744-752.

© Copyright 2018 GoodTherapy.org. All rights reserved. Permission to publish granted by Fabiana Franco, PhD, therapist in New York City, New York

The preceding article was solely written by the author named above. Any views and opinions expressed are not necessarily shared by GoodTherapy.org. Questions or concerns about the preceding article can be directed to the author or posted as a comment below.

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  • Margo

    Margo

    December 12th, 2018 at 7:43 AM

    I found this to be a very intriguing article. As a person with CVD, a history of Trauma, and being in the mental health field, I appreciate learning things like this!
    Thank you!
    Margo

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