The Dunning-Kruger Effect: How Being Wrong Feels So Right

confident-man-leaning-back-in-chairAnyone who’s ever witnessed a debate between friends has probably watched people confidently assert things that are untrue. If you’ve ever tried to correct an untrue assumption, you’ve probably witnessed confidence turn to arrogance or aggression, then wondered why it is that people tend to get more entrenched when they’re shown to be wrong.

This phenomenon isn’t just an unpleasant side effect of hard-headedness, though. It may actually be the result of a cognitive bias, called the Dunning-Kruger effect, that colors the perceptions of people when they’re wrong.

Measuring Competence

The central argument of the Dunning-Kruger effect—named after David Dunning and Justin Kruger of Cornell University—is that incompetent people don’t know enough to know what they don’t know. Consequently, they’re more likely to overestimate their own competence. If you’ve ever taken a test and felt confident, only to find that you bombed it, you’ve experienced the Dunning-Kruger effect. It can happen to anyone—no one knows everything, and a key element of knowledge is knowing what you need to learn. A corollary of the theory is that highly competent people are more likely to underestimate their competence and performance.

How Cognitive Biases Shape Perception

Cognitive biases such as the Dunning-Kruger effect are subtle tricks the brain plays that can alter perception. In the case of competence, the Dunning-Kruger cognitive bias is enough to give anyone pause about whether he or she can accurately evaluate his or her own performance. But don’t worry. Cognitive biases don’t mean that you’re drifting aimlessly, never able to fully grasp what you don’t know. Instead, they provide a cautionary tale about the effects of inaccurate thinking. They also confirm that each of us is vulnerable to inflated egos and hubris—something everyone might want to consider next time they comment on a blog, post on Facebook, or get into an Internet-based flame war.

Effects of the Bias

It may not come as a huge shock that incompetent people might not be able to accurately gauge their own abilities. But the Dunning-Kruger team has published several more studies uncovering hidden effects of the bias. Just as the theory might predict, researchers have found that the highly competent are more likely to be humble about their abilities than the highly incompetent. Incompetent people also tend to be unable to recognize competence in others. For example, a person who abhors reading is unlikely to believe that Tolstoy is a skilled novelist. Perhaps even more troubling, the bias predicts that incompetent people are unable to recognize the severity of their incompetence, even when they’re finally able to recognize that they lack a particular skill.

There’s hope, though. Competence is largely a product of exposure and experience, and a formerly terrible math student can excel with the right tutoring. Dunning and Kruger have found that, when an incompetent person gains a new skill, he or she is finally able to recognize previous inadequacy—a process that might explain why so many people cringe when they look back on old journal entries.


  1. Dunning, D., Johnson, K., Ehrlinger, J., and Kruger, J. (2013). Why people fail to recognize their own incompetence [Digital image]. Retrieved from
  2. The Dunning-Kruger Effect: Why the incompetent don’t know they’re incompetent. (n.d.). PsyBlog RSS. Retrieved from

© Copyright 2013 All rights reserved.

The preceding article was solely written by the author named above. Any views and opinions expressed are not necessarily shared by Questions or concerns about the preceding article can be directed to the author or posted as a comment below.

  • Leave a Comment
  • James

    August 9th, 2013 at 11:13 AM

    I find that if I ever get into it with someone who really doesn’t know as much about a situation as he proclaims to, I just have to walk away.
    Even if that lets him think that he wins then so be it.
    I have too much to do to waste my energy on idiots.

  • N.K

    August 11th, 2013 at 11:38 PM

    there r things all of us have problems with.things that v do not get or understand.but to understand that there will always be such things that there is always more to learn is the mark of a sharp mind in my belief.

  • hayden

    August 12th, 2013 at 10:03 AM

    There are some people who are going to srgue until the end just to make a point.
    They may be convinced in the beginning that they are right, but may get to a poijt in the argument where they see that they are wrong,. but they would rather be a fool and argue until the end than concede that someone else could have beaten them.
    That’s just a sore loser if you ask me.
    But we all know someone who is like that. They are going to argue with you even if you have proof that is indisputable. They just can’t admit that they could be wrong and they will just keep going on and on and until you throw in the towel.

Leave a Comment

By commenting you acknowledge acceptance of's Terms and Conditions of Use.

* Indicates required field.

GoodTherapy uses cookies to personalize content and ads to provide better services for our users and to analyze our traffic. By continuing to use this site you consent to our cookies.