Brain Waves

Transluscent skull and waves of brain activity

Brain waves are patterns of electrical activity occurring in the brain. They are crucial to all aspects of brain functioning: thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Because brain activity can be influenced and altered through neurofeedback, desirable brain activity can be increased in those who are experiencing symptoms of certain mental health conditions.

Understanding Brain Waves

The human brain is made up of brain cells called neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical brain waves. The pattern of brain waves changes depending on one’s level of consciousness and cognitive processing. For example, when one feels fatigued or dreamy, slower brainwaves are likely dominant at that time.

Brain activity is generally characterized by a combination of brain waves. Depending on what one is doing at the time, a particular brain wave will be dominant over the others. This balance is important: When one’s brainwaves are not balanced properly, that individual may experience both emotional and neuro-physical health concerns.

Brain waves were discovered by German neurologist Hans Berger in the mid-1920s. Though Berger’s path to this discovery began because he wanted to record what he thought was psychic energy in the brain, he eventually narrowed his focus and successfully made the first recording of electrical waves in the brain: an electroencephalogram, or EEG. Since his discovery, EEGs have been used to provide useful information about one’s mental state and functioning, as they can lead to the diagnosis of epilepsy, sleep conditions, Alzheimer’s, and other issues related to brain functioning.

There are five different types of brain waves, ranging from low to high frequency:

  • Delta brain waves are the slowest brain waves. They are generated in deep meditation and dreamless sleep. Healing and regeneration occur when the brain is in this state.
  • Theta waves also occur in sleep and during relaxation. They are indicative of an inner focus, and dreams and vivid imagery occur in this state.
  • Alpha waves occur during quiet, thoughtful times. Alpha waves indicate that the brain is in a resting state.
  • Beta waves are the most common pattern in the normal waking state. They occur when one is alert and focused on problem solving.
  • Gamma brain waves are the fastest and are associated with higher levels of consciousness.

Brain Waves and Sleep

The brain is very active during sleep, and each stage of sleep is characterized by the brain waves that accompany it.

  • Stage 1: In this stage, alpha waves are replaced by theta waves as one transitions from relaxation to sleep. Sleep is light and easily disturbed.
  • Stage 2: During this stage of sleep, brain waves become slower as alpha activity stops completely and theta waves predominate.
  • Stages 3 and 4: These stages are very similar in that both are forms of deep sleep. Brain activity slows down as delta waves occur. These are the stages during which sleepwalking and nightmares occur.
  • Stage 5 (REM): During the rapid eye movement (REM) stage, the muscles become temporarily paralyzed, and the eyes move quickly. Dreaming also occurs during this stage. The pattern of brain waves is similar to that in stages 1 and 2, although the sleeper is in a deeper state of sleep.

Brain Waves and Mental Health

Brain waves are relevant to mental health, as abnormalities in brain functioning can influence the development of certain conditions. For example, when certain areas of the brain are over-aroused, an individual may experience anxiety, nightmares or other sleep problems, impulsivity, and aggression. Too little arousal in the brain, on the other hand, has been correlated with depression, chronic pain, and insomnia. If brain rhythms are unstable, an individual may experience obsessive compulsions, develop epilepsy, or have panic attacks.

Neuroscientists have recently discovered a link between an overabundance of gamma waves in the brain and schizophrenia. Gamma waves cause hyperactivity in areas of the brain, and when this hyperactivity is abnormally high, as it often is in those with schizophrenia, delusions and hallucinations can result. Poor sleep, which also results from an excess of hyperactive brain waves, has also been recently shown to be a contributing factor to symptoms of schizophrenia: Those who have trouble sleeping due to overabundant gamma waves in the brain may experience a “triggering” of schizophrenia symptoms.

Research on brain waves has also shown that certain individuals may be biologically more likely to experience depression. These individuals demonstrate an abundance of alpha wave activity in the left frontal areas of their brain. Another condition that is characterized by an excess of lower frequency brain waves is attention deficit hyperactivity. However, both of these conditions, along with others, have shown improvement when treated with neurofeedback therapy.

Neurofeedback is a therapeutic technique that is used to monitor and change brain wave patterns in an attempt to modify behaviors and improve mental health. In this type of therapy, individuals are taught to alter the flow of brain waves. A therapist uses EEG readings to determine the level of brain waves and assess the predominance of abnormal activity and then rewards the desired brain wave activity to encourage its production. In an individual who has depression, for example, the therapist will use sound and visual effects to reward beta waves in order to help relieve the symptoms of depression.


  1. Ericson, J. (2014, March 26). REM, dreams, and brain waves explained: What happens in the brain when we sleep? Medical Daily. Retrieved from
  2. Guyol, G. (n.d.). Ending Mood Disorders Without Drugs. Retrieved from
  3. Laskow, S. (2014, November 23). The role of the supernatural in the discovery of EEGs. The Atlantic. Retrieved from
  4. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). EEG (electroencephalogram). org. Retrieved from
  5. Myers, J.E., & Young, J.S. (2012). Brain wave biofeedback: Benefits of integrating neurofeedback in counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol 90(1), 20-28.
  6. Trafton, A. (2013, October 16). Schizophrenia linked to abnormal brain waves. Retrieved from
  7. What are brainwaves? (n.d.). Brainworks. Retrieved from

Last Updated: 01-8-2016

  • Leave a Comment
  • Jacquelyn R,

    September 6th, 2018 at 1:27 AM

    I’ve been watching the “Eureka” series, and I’m curious about Z-Waves and P-Branes. Also, they had an episode where people in the town became critically dumb because of ingestion of genetically engineered chicken that was grown in pieces, being flooded with vircuculine under grow lights. The scientist said that vircuculine was a GABBA blocker, and it was impairing the community’s intelligence. In this day of genetic engineering, I’m very curious.

  • steven k.

    November 9th, 2018 at 3:32 PM

    Yes,,,,,Tell you a funny story,,,,,,,Only Sandy ,,,my other (better) half knows it for now,,,,,,,last week a strange thing happened to me,,,,,,,for a couple of weeks I have been battling a toothache,,,,causing me some stress,,,,also another separate medical issue was stressing me,,,,,my kidney function is not what it should be so I was getting ready to go and see the specialist the other day,,,,,,just before I went,my phone rang,,,,,,,,It was my good friend Wayne Green,from Sydney,,1000km. away ,,,,,His words were,,,,,,,,”how are you,what is wrong,,,?”,,,,,,It seems that he Thought of me,,,,and felt the need to check on me at that time ,,,,,,,weird huh. ,,,,,,,,he has done this before,,,a couple of times,,,,The world is an amazing place,,,,,,,One would think that I would imagine something because the way I am,,,,,,,But here is a response has come from someone who is mentally rock solid,,,,,,,,Let the magic continue I say,,,,,,,,,we live in exciting times,,,,,,my question is simple ,,,,,as this is a bit scary and strange,,,,,,,how is this done,,,,,,It was done without my knowledge,,,,,,,,is there a separate channel in our brain,,,,,,?,,,,,,,I have many questions
    Steve K.

  • Chad

    September 10th, 2019 at 1:05 PM

    According to Cark Jung, Sigmund Freud’s number one pupil: the subconscious mind connects with all other subconscious minds of every human alive, while we sleep; a condition he called “the Collective Unconscious”.

  • Chad

    September 10th, 2019 at 1:09 PM

    Carl Jung. Stupid autocorrect.

  • Mel

    February 9th, 2019 at 6:43 AM

    I have epilepsy that is caused by abnormal brainwaves in the left hemisphere in my brain. what I would like to know is if there’s any way I can alter my brainwaves

  • Michele

    February 3rd, 2020 at 11:00 AM

    Have you tried meditation?

  • Elliot C

    March 22nd, 2020 at 7:43 PM

    There are numerous Youtube videos of binaural audio to train your brainwaves, look some up and see if it helps.

  • Nicole

    September 11th, 2019 at 12:10 PM

    I have been struggling with reading comprehension and memory cognitive disordr. Read and reread but still cannot get the fullest of what I read, come exams time I do very poorly and test. Is there any advice out there? I also would like to know where can I get a real brain wave test? to see if there is other factors going on in my brain.Thank you in advance.

  • Aisha

    September 17th, 2019 at 7:32 PM

    My daughter is 9years she was diagnosed with brain wave so far I haven’t notice any healthy issues but I am a bit worries as she is scheduled for further tests. I want to know what are the health issues involved

  • Leo

    November 6th, 2019 at 11:35 PM

    I’ve been going to neurofeedback sessions for about 11 weeks now, one session each week. I haven’t really noticed any improvement yet. I’m told that it’s still early in the process. Reading about the five brain waves was very interesting !

  • Odun

    May 11th, 2020 at 7:13 AM

    My friend has an unstable brain activity, as he faint many times (it’s like we turn him off ) , yesterday when he slept he didn’t wake up , we took him to the hospital and he’s still sleep ,now it’s been a day since he’s sleeping. His doctors said his brain activity is unstable, sometimes it’s too high and sometimes it’s too slow. So I’d be glad if someone here have an idea about how can we treat him, knowing that his mom was taking abortive drugs when she was pregnant with him. And is that disorder on brain activity can have serious consequences like death? How can we treat/help him?! What about mental health, he has many problems lately, so can we consider mental heath as a factor for his unstable brain activity?
    Thanks in advance

  • Sly

    May 29th, 2020 at 7:28 PM

    Say hi to him when his up. Let him start with 15mins of Meditation with a low meditation soundtrack.

  • Odun

    May 30th, 2020 at 11:21 AM

    Really? Can this help ?! He woke up after 4 days of coma. But his brain activity is unstable really

  • Jaipal

    February 3rd, 2021 at 5:16 AM

    My son is 17 year old feels shock wave(feel electric shock in brain) when focusing on his study. Please help me to get rid of this problem.

  • Jaipal

    February 3rd, 2021 at 5:16 AM


  • Jacquelyn

    February 4th, 2021 at 9:31 AM

    Jaipal, maybe you should have his eyes checked. I’ve have severe eye strain that felt like that. It just took time & lots of sleep to rest the eyes, and there still are relapses when I spend too much time reading on the computer. Hope this helps. :)

  • Helene

    August 4th, 2023 at 2:05 AM

    What is the effect of Infrasound, 12 -16 Hz, on sleeping patterns and Human health. Also, can it cause Epileptic seizures?!
    We are experiencing health problems ever since a mine situated next to us, and have become fully operational.
    Sound tests have already been done by 2 individual professional companies that proved that the mine operate at vibrations ranging between 12 and 16 Hz.

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