Therapy for Phobias, Therapist for Phobias


Scary forest swamp

A phobia can be described as an intense fear—which may be considered irrational—of a particular place, situation, animal, or object. This will typically be avoided by the person experiencing the phobia, and when it must be endured, it generally provokes significant fear and/or anxiety.

Phobias can be treated successfully through many therapeutic approaches. Learn more about phobias below or click here to learn about getting help with a phobia.

Understanding Phobias

The National Institute of Mental Health reports that over 10 million United States adults may experience a phobia. Phobias and phobia disorders can come in a multitude of forms, but they often involve similar parts of the brain. Studies indicate that:

  • Specific phobias affect between 7% and 9% of the United States population. 
  • Twice as many women as men report experiencing a phobia, and women are more likely to experience phobias related to the environment, a situation, or animals. 
  • Phobias related to blood, injection, or injury are experienced almost equally by all individuals. 
  • Phobias may occur in higher rates in children with autism (ASD). 
  • Older people are more likely to have a phobia related to inanimate objects, while younger people may be more likely to have an animal-related phobia.

People who experience one phobia may also be more likely to experience multiple phobias. About 75% of individuals with a phobia fear more than one situation, object, or event.

Fear vs. Phobias

Most people have a particular fear, several particular fears, or experience fear in certain situations that are generally considered to be dangerous. A phobia, however, goes beyond ordinary fear and may often feature an object or situation that is not typically threatening, such as a ringing telephone.  

Fear, the emotion often experienced when safety or well-being is threatened, is generally considered to be a rational response to something that is threatening. A person with a phobia may recognize that the thing or situation feared carries little or no threat and is unlikely to cause harm but still be unable to overcome the fear without help. For example, most people will experience fear when encountering a dog that is growling, barking, or foaming at the mouth. But a person who is afraid to approach any dog—even one leashed, behind a fence, or sleeping—and experiences fear at the sound of dogs barking in the distance likely has a phobia of dogs.

Phobia Symptoms

Phobias are listed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) under anxiety disorders. They are not considered to be a form of psychosis, as the person experiencing the phobia typically recognizes the object of the phobia is unlikely to cause harm. Yet people still often cannot help the terror and panic that may result upon exposure.

Symptoms of a phobic reaction may include:

  • Dizziness, a faint feeling, or shortness of breath
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Trembling, shaking, numbness, or tingling
  • Sweating, chills
  • Chest pain, shortness of breath, or heart palpitations
  • A fear of losing control, dying, or fainting
  • A feeling that one is detached from one’s body

A fainting or near-fainting response, heart rate acceleration, and blood pressure elevation typically characterize phobias specifically related to blood, injections, or injuries. 

Symptoms can trigger panic attacks when they occur at high intensity, and fear linked to phobic reactions may also lead to the development of anxiety, stress, and depression. Often, the fear of experiencing a phobic reaction will lead individuals to avoid all possibility of encountering the object of the phobia, and this avoidance may have a negative impact on well-being and a person’s ability to function.

Phobias generally first appear in childhood and may also develop after a traumatic experience. In the majority of cases, the phobia develops before age 10. Phobias may wax and wane during childhood and adolescence, according to the DSM, but if they continue into adulthood, they are likely to persist throughout life.

Phobia Causes

While a phobia may seem to have no apparent cause, addressing the phobia with the help of a mental health professional may reveal a phobia’s roots. Often, a phobia develops following some childhood experience and may sometimes be associated with deeper fears or a traumatic experience.

A part of the brain called the amygdala, which controls many of our emotional responses including the fear response, may also contribute to many phobias. People who are more sensitive to fear could be more likely to develop a phobia. Genetics and upbringing also contribute to how strongly people react to fear, meaning these factors may also influence a person’s likelihood of developing a phobia.

With the help of a mental health professional, it is often possible to overcome or at least significantly reduce the impact of a phobia.

Complex and Specific Phobias

There are two main types of phobias: complex and specific. Both can severely impact a person’s daily life and may be improved with the help of a therapist, but some key distinctions set each type apart.

  • Complex phobias, such as agoraphobia or social phobia (social anxiety), are more likely to have a significant impact on a person’s function. Adult onset is also more likely with these phobias, which may develop as a result of life experiences, brain chemistry, genetic causes, or some combination of the above. Social phobia in particular may often develop following a stressful social experience. As with specific phobias, these complex phobias generally improve with treatment.
  • Specific phobias most often develop in childhood and may be triggered by an unpleasant or traumatic experience. For example, the experience of nearly choking to death may lead to the development of a phobia of choking. Common specific phobias include the fear of blood, storms, enclosed spaces, germs, heights, and flying. Phobias may also be learned; a child who witnesses the phobia of a family member may be more likely to develop the same phobia.

Types of Phobias

Certain phobias may be more common, while other phobias may be much rarer. Some research on phobias categorizes them into several groups, including situational phobias, animal phobias, and mutilation phobias.

You may be familiar with some of the most common phobias, like social phobias or anxiety. Some other common phobias include:

Complex Phobias

  • Social phobias: This includes social anxiety. Social anxiety causes fear of many kinds of social situations and may be generalized or non-generalized. 
  • Agoraphobia: Typically characterized by fear of open or crowded spaces, agoraphobia may also include the fear of having a panic attack in public or fear of leaving one’s home.

Specific Phobias

Specific phobias can be separated into several subcategories:

Situational Phobias

Animal Phobias

  • Ophidiophobia: fear of snakes
  • Arachnophobia: fear of spiders
  • Entomophobia: fear of insects
  • Cynophobia: fear of dogs
  • Musophobia: fear of mice
  • Ailurophobia: fear of cats
  • Melissaphobia: fear of bees
  • Zoophobia: fear of animals

Body/Mutilation Phobias

  • Odontophobia: fear of the dentist
  • Iatrophobia: fear of going to the doctor
  • Erythrophobia: fear of blushing
  • Mysophobia: fear of germs
  • Trypanophobia: fear of needles and injections
  • Hemophobia: fear of blood
  • Aichmophobia: fear of knives and sharp objects

Other Phobias

  • Panophobia: fear of everything
  • Aquaphobia: fear of water
  • Genophobia: fear of sex
  • Trypophobia: fear of holes
  • Coulrophobia: fear of clowns
  • Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia: fear of long words

Some phobias may be less common, but they can still greatly impact day-to-day life for many. With the help of a therapist, it is possible to overcome even the most uncommon phobia.

Phobias in Children

Phobias typically first appear in childhood, and most cases of specific phobias develop by age 10. However, because excessive fear—which may involve a variety of objects, situations, places, or people—is common in childhood, a mental health professional will generally take into account the severity of the fear, the degree to which it affects the child’s life, and whether or not the fear is appropriate to the child’s developmental stage. Often, childhood fears may be experienced intensely but fade rapidly or have little to no harmful impact on the child’s daily activity. In this case, a phobia would likely not be diagnosed.

Fear may be expressed in children through tantrums, crying, freezing, neediness, and unexplained pain, such as stomach or head pain. Children may also find it difficult to understand the concept of avoidance, so a mental health professional may rely on information from parents, teachers, and other adults.

It can be frustrating to be afraid of something, especially when it’s difficult to explain why. Talking about phobias with a licensed, empathic therapist may help you learn how to manage and reduce the fear caused by a phobia.


  1. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. (5th ed.). (2013). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
  2. Fredrikson, M., Annas, P., Fischer, H., & Wik, G. (1996). Gender and age differences in the prevalence of specific fears and phobias. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1(34), 33-39. Retrieved from 
  3. Hill, F. (2004). Understanding phobias. London: Mind.
  4. Lydon, S., Healing, O., O’Callaghan, O., Mulhern, T., & Holloway, J. (2014, December 2). A systematic review of the treatment of fears and phobias among children with autism spectrum disorders. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2(2), 141-154. doi: 10.1007/s40489-014-0043-4
  5. Nordqvist, C. (2014, September 11). What is a phobia? What causes phobia? Retrieved from
  6. Understanding childhood fears and anxieties. (2015, August 20). Retrieved from
  7. Warin, C., & Challis, S. (2014). Understanding phobias. London: Mind.
  8. Winerman, L. (2005). Figuring out phobia. Monitor on Psychology, 7(36), 96. Retrieved from
  • Acrophobia

    While most people experience some level of fear associated with extreme heights, acrophobia is an excessive fear of heights that can be debilitating for some and distressing to others. Acrophobia can develop from a traumatic experience, it may be learned from an early childhood parent or caregiver, or it could just be a natural survival instinct.  Read More

  • Claustrophobia

    Claustrophobia is the intense fear of small, enclosed spaces, coupled with the fear of being trapped in these spaces. The cause of claustrophobia is unclear, and the settings in which a person may experience claustrophobia are varied, but the symptom of panic is universal.  Read More

  • Mysophobia

    Mysophobia is the obsessive fear of germs or contamination that disrupts a person's normal activity. Our culture has grown increasingly fearful of germs, as evidenced by the surge in availability of hand sanitizers and other antibacterial products, but mysophobia is indicated only when a person fixates on sanitation or uses antibacterial products obsessively.  Read More

  • Aerophobia

    A person who experiences aerophobia, the fear of flying, may experience severe panic on an airplane or avoid air travel altogether. The fear of flying may also be associated with acrophobia, claustrophobia, and generalized anxiety.  Read More

  • Ophidophobia

    Ophidophobia is one of the most common phobias, with about a third of people experiencing the phobia to some degree. Some people with a snake phobia also have a more generalized phobia of reptiles known as herpetophobia.  Read More

  • Trypanophobia

    Trypanophobia, commonly known as needle phobia, is the extreme fear of needles. People with trypanophobia may go to great lengths to avoid procedures such as injections or blood draws, and symptoms can include a drop in blood pressure, panic, fear of doctors, and the fear of blood.  Read More

  • Cynophobia

    Cynophobia is the extreme fear of dogs that often results from a traumatic experience with an ill-behaved dog. Cynophobia is one of the most common animal phobias.  Read More


Last updated: 09-21-2018

Therapist   Treatment Center

Advanced Search


Mental health professionals who meet our membership requirements can take advantage of benefits such as:

  • Client referrals
  • Continuing education credits
  • Publication and media opportunities
  • Marketing resources and webinars
  • Special discounts

Learn More is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis, medical treatment, or therapy. Always seek the advice of your physician or qualified mental health provider with any questions you may have regarding any mental health symptom or medical condition. Never disregard professional psychological or medical advice nor delay in seeking professional advice or treatment because of something you have read on