Woman standing beside ocean, breathing in deeplyBreathwork is a general term used to describe any type of therapy that utilizes breathing exercises to improve mental, physical, and spiritual health. Many forms of breathwork therapy exist today. Each has its own unique methods of using breath for healing purposes. It draws from Eastern practices like yoga and Tai Chi while incorporating Western psychotherapy techniques. To bring about self-awareness, breathwork can include elements of talk therapy, breathing exercises, art, music, and bodywork. This therapy can be used with individuals, couples, and groups. It should be facilitated by a certified professional.

What Conditions Does Breathwork Treat?

In general, the goal of any breathwork therapy is to support people in achieving a greater sense of self-awareness and capacity for self-healing. It also helps people work toward overall improvement in mental, physical, and spiritual well-being. Breathwork therapists, or Breathworkers as they are sometimes called, guide participants through various therapeutic breathing techniques.

Breathwork therapy is thought to benefit people experiencing issues such as:

Types of Breathwork Approaches in Therapy

There are several kinds of breathwork therapy available today. Many of these have similar foundations. Some well-known types of breathwork include:

  • Holotropic Breathwork. In this type of breathwork, the goal is to achieve “wholeness” of mind, body, and spirit. Sessions are facilitated by certified practitioners who have completed the Grof Transpersonal Training program. With the aid of “evocative” music and occasional bodywork, participants are guided through breath exercises while lying down. This is meant to induce altered states of consciousness. Holotropic Breathwork is often conducted with groups. This allows people to work in dyads and support each other’s processes. Participants usually create mandalas related to their breathwork experience immediately after the group breathing exercises. Sessions end with sharing and discussion. This helps participants integrate what they have learned about themselves.
  • Rebirthing Breathwork. This type of breathwork is also known as Conscious Energy Breathing. It is based on the premise that all humans carry with them the trauma of their birth experience. After allegedly re-experiencing his own birth in his bathtub, Leonard Orr was inspired to help others find the same inner peace. The goal of Rebirthing is to help people release energy blockages that have been stored in the body and mind due to suppressed trauma. In treatment, participants are asked to lie down, relax, and breathe normally. Through the use of “conscious connected circular breathing”, inhibitions surface. The tensions of past trauma are then illuminated. Deep relaxation is used to promote brain waves that lead to the release of subconscious issues and pent-up energy.
  • Clarity Breathwork. This type of therapy is based on many of the tenets of Rebirthing Breathwork. But it does not solely focus on the trauma of birth. Clarity Breathwork addresses any and all issues that hinder the healthy flow of energy and breath. Clarity Breathwork is based on the idea that most people do not breathe to their full capacity. The main goal of a Clarity Breathwork Practitioner is to teach people how to breathe fully. This may release the emotional energy that keeps them stuck. Therapy begins with an in-depth interview about present concerns and past experiences. Sessions include in-depth intuitive counseling, somatic exploration, and one hour of circular connected breathing practice.
  • Biodynamic Breathwork. Fully known as BioDynamic Breath and Trauma Release System, this modality integrates six elements. It seeks to release tension, support natural healing, and restructure internal systems. The categories of biodynamic breathwork are breath, movement, sound, touch, emotion, and meditation. This approach recognizes trauma is stored in both psychological and physical ways. Trauma may be stored through emotional patterns, chronic stress, and blocked energy.  Biodynamic breathwork aims to restore balance to these systems. Treatment sessions might incorporate exercises like deep, connected breathing and revisiting ingrained memories and sensations. It might also include music or sound therapy, vocalization, whole-body shaking, and even dance therapy. Giten Tonkov, founder of the BioDynamic Breathwork and Trauma Release System, says the therapy focuses on self-transformation. “People become more capable of supporting others to do the same. It’s not a knowledge based on academics. It is based on creating space and relaxation in your physical body."

Other types of breathwork therapy include:

  • Integrative Breathwork
  • Shamanic Breathwork
  • Vivation
  • Zen Yoga Breathwork
  • Transformational Breathwork

Examples of Breathwork Exercises

All forms of breathwork therapy are centered on the act of breathing in and out. But each model incorporates its own breathwork exercises. Overall, breathwork exercises involve deep, focused breathing that lasts for an extended period of time. Some examples include:

  • Continuous circular breathing. Using full deep breaths, participants breathe in and out continuously. They do not hold their breath at any point. This continuous in and out creates a circle of breath.
  • Immersion in water. The participant is partially or fully immersed in water. They are asked to breathe deeply, either above the surface or with the aid of a snorkel. Although not as prevalent as it was in the 1970s, this Rebirthing technique has historically produced dramatic results.
  • 20 connected breaths. The participant is asked to breathe in and out 20 times. They take four sets of four short breaths and one deep breath. It is suggested that the breathing be done through the nose. Participants may experience “non-ordinary” states of consciousness as a result of this exercise.

Criticisms and Limitations of Breathwork

Over the past few decades, controversy has surrounded the practice of certain kinds of breathwork. However, supporters argue that breathwork can be extremely effective in the treatment of several physical and mental health issues. The Stanislav and Christina Grof Foundation cites the following research in support of the benefits of Holotropic Breathwork:

  • In 1994, Spivak et al. concluded that the alteration of consciousness that occurs during Holotropic Breathwork incites not only phenomenal influence but also physiological effects.
  • In 1996, a study conducted by Sarah Holmes et al. found that participants who received Holotropic Breathwork experienced a reduction in “death anxiety” and an increase in self-esteem.
  • A study conducted by Binovera (2003) found that Holotropic Breathwork participants reported better communication with others and a deeper understanding of the world around them.

Despite this research and support, breathwork therapy is not without limitations, contraindications, and criticisms. One major concern is that breathwork has been known to induce hyperventilation. Hyperventilation may lead to physical issues including dizziness, tingling of extremities, heart palpitations, or muscle spasms. Prolonged hyperventilation can lead to decreased blood flow to the brain, clouded vision, ringing in the ears, and possible cognitive changes.

It is not clear whether these effects cause long-term damage. But people interested in breathwork should be aware of any potential risks. Breathwork is not recommended for people with a history of aneurisms, cardiovascular problems, high blood pressure, vision problems, osteoporosis, or any recent physical injuries or surgeries. It is also not recommended for people who experience severe psychiatric symptoms or seizures or who take heavy medication. Potential participants may want to consult with their primary care physician and seek a certified professional before engaging in breathwork therapy.

History of Breathwork

For centuries, people have sought spiritual awakening, self-healing, and meditative relaxation through breathing techniques. Breathwork has roots in Eastern practices like yoga, Tai Chi, and Buddhism. However, most of the breathwork therapy used today got its start during the consciousness-raising era of the 1960s and 1970s.

Several types of breathwork were formed during this era. These included Holotropic Breathwork and Rebirthing Breathwork. Some models emphasized self-awareness and inner peace. Others dealt with altered states of consciousness and psychedelic effects. Rebirthing Breathwork, for example, was developed by Leonard Orr. It focused on the traumatic experience of birth. Holotropic Breathwork, established by Dr. Stan Grof and his wife, Christina Grof, grew out of their research on consciousness and the effects of psychedelic drugs like LSD.

Since the 1970s, the field of breathwork therapy has grown further. In 1991, Jacquelyn Small founded Integrative Breathwork. This approach is based on her work in Holotropic Breathwork alongside Dr. Grof. In addition, Clarity Breathwork, which evolved from Rebirthing Breathwork, was established in 1999. Clarity Breathwork expanded upon the principles of Rebirthing to include a more generalized approach to trauma and therapy.

Today, the field of breathwork continues to evolve. Dozens of models and certification programs are available to interested participants and practitioners alike. Many organizations contribute to the training, research, and expansion efforts of Breathwork therapists around the world. These include:

  • The Stanislav and Christina Grof Foundation (formerly called the Association of Holotropic Breathwork International (AHBI))
  • Rebirthing Breathwork International (RBI)
  • The Global Professional Breathwork Alliance (GPBA)
  • The International Breathwork Foundation (IBF) 


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