Selfishness is the tendency to prioritize one’s own desires and needs above the needs and desires of other people.
What is Selfishness?
We are all born with a drive to stay alive and healthy, and selfishness may be a misplaced manifestation of this. A certain degree of selfishness is normal. For example, many people would choose to ensure their own food needs are met before giving food to others. But selfishness can also be a pathological personality trait. Selfish people may prioritize their own petty needs above the significant needs of others. For example, a person is exhibiting selfishness when he or she steals money from their mother to buy a comic book.
Some mental health problems can contribute to the development of selfishness. Many personality disorders, particularly antisocial personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder, cause people to be so wrapped up in their own desires that they either do not notice or do not care about the needs of others. Many other mental illnesses can cause extreme self-involvement, which can contribute to selfishness. A depressed person, for example, might be so wrapped up in his or her own feelings of suffering that he/she is unable to provide for his/his children or communicate with his/her partner.
Different Conceptions of Selfishness
Many religions decry selfishness and emphasize the virtues of compassion, empathy, and self-sacrifice. The pacifist movement, which draws on many religious traditions, is a radical answer to selfishness, and emphasizes non-violence even in the face of overwhelming hostility. Some religious gurus have advocated extreme self-sacrifice, emphasizing the primacy of others over oneself.
There is significant debate in evolutionary biology about the evolved nature of selfishness. Richard Dawkins’ book The Selfish Gene, for example, argues that our genes have the “selfish” desire to propagate themselves and do nothing else. Some biologists argue that people are innately selfish. Others, however, emphasize that helping others can ensure the survival of the species and argue that compassion, empathy, and self-sacrifice are as innate to people as selfishness. People are sometimes more likely to show self-sacrificing behavior for close relatives, and some biologists argue that this is an evolved trait. Many parents would give up their own lives for the lives of their children; one interpretation of this inclination is that when a child survives, the parent’s genes survive with the child.
- Hauser, M. D. (2006). Moral minds: How nature designed our universal sense of right and wrong. New York, NY: Ecco.
Last Updated: 08-24-2015
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L. T.December 3rd, 2016 at 7:37 AM
Interested in helping my brother, who suffers from extreme anti-social and paranoid behavior (obsessive narcissism). My father was anti-social, but extremely giving. I myself suffer from debilitating PTSD and major depression (from an especially violent car accident). My religion, Mennonite, emphasizes pacifism. My father asked me before he died, to care for his farm. I have. My parents have both passed, my father last, from complications of Alzheimer’s. He did everything for my brother and I-even got my brother his own job. Now my brother hoards money and repeatedly moved home to the farm from his 20s-40s. I am disabled but contributed in knowledge of my father’s endeavors and financially. My brother expects a handout, entitled, extremely selfishness. My brother has even aligned himself with my ex boyfriend who wants me to sell and move to be with him in Florida. He even has manipulated my brother to meet his needs, sold an asset of our farm below market level. Selling it (small airplane) wouldve given me more time to settle disability workers comp payment and buy my brother’s share of the farm. There are eager buyers waiting in the wings. Selling the property would render me homeless. I have been resourceful and am living below standards in sacrifice for my father’s legacy. None of the buyers wants to purchase half of property,however there are many leasing opportunities from property. I seek therapy and see a doctor for PTSD, numerous physical limitations (I can’t drive) –my brother will not. He listens to NPR excessively and has become violent with me. I love him but need to survive. It has been taken to the Orphans CT. My brother and my exboyfriend have been negotiating behind my back. My exboyfriend fears being arrested for breach of fiduciary duty. He is an extreme narcissist who came to console me and we briefly appointed him as a pr. Two days after my father’s death my common sense came to light and I kept the letters of administration. He convinced my brother to steal them out of my room. He did. After a year of trying, I finally had him removed. Sorry for the long comment. It is very evident that people should be brave, fight the stigma of mental illness and seek help from a doctor. The illnesses can ruin lives and cause irreparable damages. Thank you for your site.
MarkAugust 19th, 2017 at 7:34 PM
Thank you for sharing your painful story. It must be really hard to deal with. I hope you are able to get what you need.
SMay 6th, 2018 at 11:13 AM
I don’t know what you should do, sorry I’m not able to help. I wanted to thank you for sharing your story. You originally commented in 2016 so I hope that you have been able to figure some things out or get better. All the best and good luck.
AlsueFebruary 4th, 2019 at 1:40 AM
I think you should be more selfish. I know maybe that’s going to shock or upset you to hear, so please excuse me for feeling the need to say so, but hear me out, if you’re able. If these people are really narcissists, they are latching onto you because you’re good supply. To stop being good supply, you need to go no-contact and stop giving. I know that’s hard for people with high-empathy and a trauma history, but if you’re really serious about seeking a solution, that’s likely the solution. Narcissists do not hoover over people who give them no supply. I think putting yourself first will not only be healing for you, but will make a clear point that you are not a victim, and will eliminate their conviction that you are easy to control, and convenient narcissistic supply. If you are firm and consistent about this, they will back off, and go ruin someone else’s life. However, this means without them in your life, you’ll have to take ownership of the parts of you that are still leaking blood in the water before you attract new perps, so the real question is: are you ready for the responsibility of healing and taking care of yourself, because it’s a bigger job than it sounds. Blessings, and future happiness to you.
TJanuary 20th, 2019 at 5:33 PM
It’s been awhile but I have been displaying selfish behavior. Based on the contents of this site, my source of selfishness could have stemmed from years of feeling depressed and lost within my own problems. I’m getting help this year and hope that my issues will be resolved. It has come to a point where I can’t empathize with others because of my pain, it’s not healthy and it’s destroying relationships. Suicidal thoughts and actions are getting stronger either against myself or others. I miss my happiness. I wish the world we lived in was more open about the idea of “it’s okay to not be okay”. If you understand what I mean.
KerriFebruary 1st, 2019 at 7:48 AM
I am sorry I don’t have the magic words to say to change your situation instantly. I just wanted you to know someone has read your words and cares about you even without ever meeting. Please know when I say that I truly mean it. It is not a cliche or something nice to say. I care about you. I am worried you’re going to hurt yourself after reading your thoughts. Please don’t! You are so important! This world needs you. We need you in lots of different ways! I am not going to pretend that I know why you, specifically, are in this world at this exact time. BUT I believe if you decide to kill yourself, this world WOULD NOT BE A BETTER PLACE!!! We need you! I needed your words today to distract me from my own selfishness or resentment of my loved ones selfishness and point me toward self-reflection. (I haven’t figured out yet who’s to blame in our situation which is probably the real underlying issue for me – needing to know who should be ‘fixed more’ to make this marriage work… LOL!)
But bottom line, every. single. day. this world needs you! And every single day this world is a better place because YOU are in it!! You have so much to contribute even when you can’t “see” it. Maybe even, Especially-when you can’t “see” it!!! Thank you for helping me today by letting me read your words! ~K
ReneFebruary 14th, 2019 at 3:30 AM
I am this person
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