The Link Between Clothing Choices and Emotional States

Dressing up can take extra effort, but it also feels good, especially if you receive extra compliments. A new study suggests what many women have experienced: dressing in nicer clothes makes you feel better.

According to a recent news release, one study has shown that women who are depressed or sad are more likely to wear baggy tops, jeans, and a sweatshirt or jumper. Women who are happy or positive are more likely to wear a favorite dress, jewelry, and jeans. These clothing choices seem to mean that women who are feeling down put less effort into what they’re wearing, and women who are in a good mood tend to try and look nicer to match their mood.

There were 100 women interviewed for the study, and their ages ranged from 21 to 64 years, according to the news release. The researchers also found that 73% of women in the study “shopped for clothes at least every few months.” The majority of women, or 96%, “believed that what they wear affects how confident they feel,” according to the news release.

Researchers determined from the results that there is a possibility that wearing certain clothes can affect emotional states. “The strong link between clothing and mood state suggests we should put on clothes that we associate with happiness, even when feeling low,” according to the news release. The author of the study, Karen Pine, who is the coauthor of Flex: Do Something Different and a professor in the School of Psychology at University of Hertfordshire, added in the news release that jeans are more associated with a depressed mood state and that women should consider abandoning them for a different clothing choice in order to feel better.

“Jeans don’t look great on everyone. They are often poorly cut and badly fitting,” Pine said in the news release. “Jeans can signal that the wearer hasn’t bothered with their appearance. People who are depressed often lose interest in how they look and don’t wish to stand out, so the correlation between depression and wearing jeans is understandable. Most importantly, this research suggests that we can dress for happiness, but that might mean ditching the jeans.”

In the study, 51% of women would wear jeans when they felt sad or depressed, and only 33% of women would wear jeans when they felt happy or positive, according to the news release. So if people still wear jeans when they are happy, just to a lesser degree, why are they such a bad choice? Why are baggy clothes associated with a sad or depressed emotional state and dresses and jewelry associated with a happy or positive emotional state? Pine addressed these issues in an email.

“All the findings apply, but because jeans are so ubiquitous (everyone seems to have a pair, women on average have eight pairs each) we chose to ‘lead’ on this finding. It is interesting that many women wear them a lot but there’s still a variation according to mood. I think the finding that women will only wear their favourite dress when happy or will likely wear a baggy top when depressed is just as compelling.”

She said that the research didn’t go into certain details, like the fact that some women are more into a “jeans and T-shirt” type of fashion, and other women wear skirts and dresses every day as part of their style. It’s also uncertain whether results would’ve changed if researchers took into consideration the emphasis some women put on fashion and beauty and if women who shopped less were interviewed. “Of course there will always be individual differences, but nonetheless recent research into enclothed cognition … confirms there is a strong association between what we wear and our psychological processes,” Pine said.

Results would also possibly look different if men were included in the study. “A lot of my research concerns women’s issues .. and I think the emotional link is probably stronger for women than for men, although there is research that shows men’s clothes affect how they behave (e.g. sports teams that wear all black act more aggressively),” Pine said.

Overall, Pine believes the research provides a look into how we can improve our moods. “It shows that clothes impact strongly on how we feel and may also influence how we think (as the above research also suggests), which we’ll be exploring further in our research,” Pine said. “It suggests we should give more thought to what we wear and even dress for happiness, irrespective of how we are feeling. If we knew more about which clothes could lift a person’s mood perhaps there’d be less need for anti-depressant medication.”

Shauna Mackenzie Heathman, a certified image consultant and owner of Mackenzie Image Consulting in South Carolina, said in an email that the results of the study are expected. “When we are feeling depressed or unhappy, looking our best is not on our minds,” Pine said. “In fact, it becomes a hassle and waste of time. Mental energy is turned inwards towards emotional thoughts. Dressing simply becomes function versus adornment or fun.”

She said that people shouldn’t necessarily make assumptions about the feelings and emotions of another person based on their clothing though. “We have the power to wear items that represent our personalities and feelings,” Heathman said. “With that being said, who knows how other people will interpret it. We make [judgments]/assumptions based on our own experiences. Bottom line: I would be careful to assume one’s feelings based on what they wear. To a certain extent, you can read whether someone is feeling insecure based on their clothing, but body language and nonverbal communication is much more representative of one’s feelings.”

She thinks there could also be a separate study on men that explores their clothing choices and emotional states. “I think it was okay for this study to be focused around women,” Heathman said. “A separate study on men should be considered. However, first you would need to discover the underlying differences between men and women and how they interpret clothes. Men are much more focused on functionality in their wardrobe than women, regardless of emotional state. So I do think there may be some general similarities, but overall women’s results would probably be more dramatic.”

One of the main parts of the study Pine focused on was jeans and their association with a depressed or sad mood state, and Heathman thinks this could be because jeans are an easy choice that doesn’t require a lot of thought. “I don’t think it’s the fact of wearing jeans that suggests sadness or depression as it is just wanting effortlessness and functionality,” Heathman said. “As I mentioned before, when we are depressed or sad, we’re not focused on how we look. We stop caring. We turn to what’s easy and comfortable. Prolonged long enough, you then fall in ‘the rut.’ Often, altering one’s mood by enhancing wardrobe can be done. However, it generally only has short-term results if working on one’s emotional and mental state is not at play as well.”

“The study mentions that happy clothes include well-cut, figure-enhancing items made from bright and beautiful fabrics,” Heathman said. “To this, I ponder, isn’t this obvious? If something makes our figure look poor, we generally don’t like this and thus are unhappy about it. When we don’t like what we wear, we focus on it throughout the day. It takes away the focus from the daily tasks that are important—work, relationships, family. A woman should walk out of the door and not have to think about what she’s wearing for the rest of the day. You’d be amazed at how much mental energy is exhausted pondering about how we look.”

Overall she thinks the study could have gone more in-depth to provide more useful information. “I think the study lacks depth. What is revealed seems fairly obvious,” Heathman said. “I would be curious to hear why women choose to wear a hat more often when they are happy. Is it because it’s fun? Is it because it draws attention towards them? Also, the psychology of color comes into play much more than the study presents. I think it’s informative more than it is useful.”

Donna Stellhorn, a Feng Shui expert and author of 2012 Year of the Water Dragon, interprets the study from a unique perspective involving her experience with Feng Shui. For those who are unfamiliar with Feng Shui, it is “the study of how the environment affects those who dwell in it,” according to the American Feng Shui Institute website. The “science” of Feng Shui suggests that there are “different energies” in our planet, and learning how to balance these energies can help improve various aspects of life.

“In Feng Shui we understand how you dress is associated with the five elements. Each element has an energy, and we’ll gravitate to the energy that’s in harmony with how we feel at the moment,” Stellhorn said. “The study says when we’re feeling down we’re more likely to reach for jeans and loose-fitting tops. These boxy shapes relate to the Earth element, a desire for stillness and stability. There are five elements (Earth, Wood, Fire, Water, and Metal), each with an energy, feeling, and a related style. Besides the shape of clothes, also the color and material indicates the element. For instance, animal prints are associated with the Fire element and a desire to be noticed and feel alive.”

She said for men, color would probably be more of an indicator of emotional states. “Because men tend to stick to a limited wardrobe, emotional states can be read in the choices of colors and the slight changes in what they normally wear,” Stellhorn said. “Men who usually sport a T-Shirt and suddenly start wearing a button-down shirt in greens or browns has moved from the Earth element to Wood, showing a desire to grow, to add to their life financially and socially, they’ve become curious about the world.”

She agrees that jeans are less effort when people are already preoccupied with other areas of life. “It’s not that jeans specifically suggest sadness, but that the desire to throw on a pair of jeans can indicate that life’s been too chaotic, there are too many choices and we want some quiet stillness to contemplate what’s ahead,” Stellhorn said. “When we reach for jeans we want something familiar because things around us are stressful.”

Accessories can also affect mood, like the study suggests. “Women’s hats bring attention (from others and our own) to our heads and indicate a person with power,” Stellhorn said. “A man in a ball cap might be covering thinning hair, but by wearing the hat he feels more powerful and better able to interact in the world. Jewelry and handbags also bring an energy, and therefore an emotion, to the person.”

Linda Froiland, an image consultant and personal shopper, said in an email that jeans don’t need to always be associated with depression, although sometimes it can be difficult to find the perfect fit. “Jeans are not just for tennis shoes. If you have a great fitting pair in a dark wash they can be quite sexy with an elevated heel, high heel, or wedge shoes,” Froiland said. “I wear mine out dancing, dinners at friends or restaurants, shopping, everywhere really, but they fit like a glove and have attitude. I can honestly say I am not depressed when wearing jeans, nor are my clients once they know how they should fit, what they should look like, and what to pair them with.”

Rosa Mae Neel, a stylist for professionals and the founder of Prune, agrees with Froiland that jeans don’t necessarily mean depression. “In a place like New York, where women commonly spend up to $300 for a pair of jeans and wear them with heels and a sexy top to go out at night, jeans do not necessarily equal depressive state,” Neel said. “Perhaps in other parts of the country or for older generations, jeans that are not designer jeans and that are more comfortable than flattering are a go-to for depressive states. Again, blousy tops can be trendy and hip if expensive or worn with gusto, or they can be a medium through which to hide extra pounds or negative feelings.”

Froiland said that clothing can be important in not only affecting mood but also in making impressions on other people. “Whenever I talk to a group, large or small, I always start out my presentation with telling everyone that ‘It’s in less than 3 minutes someone has already decided who and what you are. First by your appearance (87%), second your body language (8%), and then your verbal communication (5%). It takes another 20 times meeting that person to change that original perception,’” Froiland said. “So the value in our clothing is profound.”

Caroline Adams Miller, a professional coach, author of “Creating Your Best Life” and a graduate of University of Pennsylvania’s Master’s in Applied Positive Psychology program, said in an email that baggy clothes in general can indicate more of a lackluster mood. “Baggy jeans that could be perceived as asexual probably don’t correlate with happiness unless paired with more individualistic shirts or accessories,” Miller said. “The baggy tops reference doesn’t surprise me because they would ‘hide’ someone, and unhappy people don’t want to interact with people—they want to ruminate and be alone, and these clothing choices are perfect indicators of not feeling worthy of being ‘seen.’”

She believes that men could be affected by clothing choices as well, although they might put more effort into choosing a car to express their personality and mood. “I do believe that many men use clothing to express and change their moods, though, so I think a future study would find similar results,” Miller said.

Overall she believes the study makes sense and that there is a real connection between clothing and mood. “The science of happiness has found that we have ‘positive interventions’ that can change our mood, and when we deliberately intervene on our happiness by wearing things that evoke positive feelings, positive reactions from others, or that remind you of positive experiences, you will be happier,” Miller said.

Related articles:
Are You Your Own Worst Enemy?
Seven Mistakes People Often Make When They Get Depressed
Depression as Trickster and Communicator

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The preceding article was solely written by the author named above. Any views and opinions expressed are not necessarily shared by Questions or concerns about the preceding article can be directed to the author or posted as a comment below.

  • Leave a Comment
  • zoe

    March 30th, 2012 at 3:11 PM

    How true!!
    When I am feeling down, the last thing that I want to do is get all dolled up. I barely even want to take a shower!
    But when I feel good on the inside, I want to flaunt that on the outside too.

  • Ang

    March 30th, 2012 at 5:12 PM

    You’re over stating the findings here. An ASSOCIATION does not mean one thing causes another at all. Ice cream sales and rates of violence are highly associated. (Because heat influences both.) This research also didn’t seem to account for an obvious likely confounding variable (i.e. weight gain). Women “wear baggy clothes when they are depressed” well, perhaps that’s because weight gain is often something that goes with depression. So, perhaps many depressed women would wear their fancy duds but simply can’t currently fit into them. This article goes to far on a very basic association.

  • SEAN

    March 31st, 2012 at 12:53 AM

    I put more effort into dressing up when I’m happy.Its pretty natural I think.When you feel low you tend to neglect or at least think less about what clothes you’re wearing and don’t put too mch effort into looking good. It happens to most people. And it’s not only for women but for men too.

  • Johnny H

    March 31st, 2012 at 7:33 AM

    Women really do baffle me. I have never once made a decision about what I am going to wear based on how I am feeling emotionally. Okay, well maybe I wear darker colors when I am down, but I don’t have the fat clothes and feeling good about myself clothes. I guess I have noticed those women who tend to hide behind their clothes, like maybe if they are big and baggy enough then no one will notice them or see what’s going on with them. But I think men in general are going to be far less likely to do this.

  • Bernice

    April 1st, 2012 at 4:56 AM

    This article really spoke to me because every day I go into my closet, and I promise you depending on how I am feeling about myself at that time is exactly what I reflect with the clothing items that I choose for the day. Having a fat day? Then it will always be something loose and baggy. Feeling a little sexy? Well then skinny jeans here I come. It should be a no brainer that I do that with color choices too, even jewelry. Everything that I wear and that I buy really in terms of clothing is built around all of this. I probably should not even go shopping when I am feeling down on myself because I end up with some tent dress that honestly would do no one any favors!

  • peyton

    April 2nd, 2012 at 4:28 AM

    This is all well and good, but honestly, something that any woman on earth could have told you without a dime having to be spent on the research. Probably for as long as we have had clothing choices, we have made a lot of those choices based upon how we are feeling on that day. Yes, clothing is emotional and the choices can go from one rahe of the spectrum to the other.

  • pookie

    April 17th, 2012 at 8:30 AM

    What nonsense. This may be an association among women who have internalized the idea that they are objects to be gazed at, or women who feel better when they coerce a supply of attention from others.

    Where I live the vast majority of women are outdoorsy, strong, competent, confident, and live in a combination of hiking boots and active wear–it’s the office casual around here. When these women are feeling down, they go hiking, skiing, cut timber, build a farm fence, start some new construction at their house, create a poem, story, play, or musical number…they don’t “dress up in nice clothes” and go trolling for an eyeballing!

  • Party Dresses Online

    February 14th, 2013 at 12:11 AM

    Every state has its own clothing style or dressing sense. We can see more than 50% people wear their own traditional style and other 50% people wear mix dresses.

  • Shopangl

    February 28th, 2013 at 1:30 AM

    There is big Link Between Choices of Clothing and Emotional States because every state has its own traditional style.

  • fred

    April 21st, 2013 at 3:57 PM

    The Link Between Clothing Choices and *Spiritual* States – dressing dignified and modest, vs immodest and slutty — so obvious, except to the (spiritually) blind

  • Rejuvacote Nail Growth

    May 14th, 2013 at 5:13 PM

    Dressing and cosmetics are the main part of fashion for any state or country.

  • Texstar Oil

    August 27th, 2013 at 12:02 PM

    Hi there colleagues, its fantastic post regarding tutoringand entirely
    defined, keep it up all the time.

  • faisal

    November 27th, 2013 at 9:53 AM

    Alright, I linked up, no just waiting for more links so I can comment too!

  • Petra

    June 7th, 2014 at 11:57 AM

    Great summary! I just wonder where I can find this news release and study mentioned? “According to a recent news release, one study has shown…”

  • Wes Scriver

    September 24th, 2014 at 11:52 PM

    Great Site. Really loved browsing what ever you had to say.

  • Jesmina

    December 16th, 2014 at 12:34 AM

    Really great and useful information, thanks a million!

  • rowi

    May 13th, 2015 at 1:46 AM

    Dark colours for my depression, anxiety and fear of emotions! And of course thoughts.

  • Tracy

    June 29th, 2015 at 4:07 AM

    Great post and throw a lot of good perspectives on the topic into the mix.

    Had a great time reading this.


  • Nikole

    September 13th, 2015 at 1:27 PM

    Wear whatever you want and what makes you comfortable. Articles like these are a waste of time. Your life belongs to you.

  • Rebekah

    September 19th, 2015 at 10:58 AM

    Wear whatever you want to wear! Show your confidence, intelligence, and personality in the way you act, what you say, and how you interact with others. Personal style is just that: Personal. Clothes may show confidence, but not nearly as much as your actions and words do. Wear whatever makes you happy, to heck with what anyone else thinks:)

  • The LA Guy

    November 5th, 2015 at 9:11 AM

    While clothes may reflect the emotional state, it is not so 100% of the time. Some people wear jeans and simple clothes only because they are busy with their ideas, hobbies, work, etc. Look at Steve Jobs. Was he depressed? He was excited and still wearing jeans. I saw many women who wear jeans and still look sexy. I saw people wearing nice clothes and still be depressed. So there is no common denominator in real life, no strong connection between clothes and psychological state, imo.

  • cool hoodies

    November 24th, 2015 at 3:36 PM

    Yes! Finally someone writes about hoodies for men.

  • Roberta S. L.

    January 15th, 2017 at 2:13 AM

    Great to see this post and put some merit behind the ‘look good – feel good’ concept which has been around for ages. If you actually tap into your emotional state and use clothing to super-boost your confidence, I think that’s perfectly fine. Using clothing as a tool independently to boost confidence, however can act as a cover-up. The best combination is to work on confidence, happiness and self-belief from the inside out.

  • Marget G

    April 8th, 2017 at 12:52 AM

    Apparently this stream of opinions is one-sided, probably because those who review for many of the Frontiers journals do not follow this stream. They just review, read the papers and cite them when it is appropriate.I am reviewing regularly for the neuroscience, neuroendocrinology editors since about 5 years and my experience is excellent.Many of the manuscipts were good or reasonable, the authors corrections were timely and in case rejection was needed I had no problem in recommending rejection. I simply do not understand why people mentioned difficulty with rejections on the forms.The editor rejected all the manuscripts where the 2 reviewers agreed that rejection was needed. Besides, if you do not agree with your editor, you can easily opt out, which I never had reason to do.

  • B E

    April 11th, 2017 at 11:02 PM

    Really great and useful information, thanks a million!

  • M.E

    May 31st, 2017 at 9:18 PM

    Who is the publisher????

  • The Team

    June 1st, 2017 at 12:03 PM

    Hi M.E.!

    This is an original article published on, written and contributed by Rheyanne Weaver. Rheyanne was writing for EmpowHer in 2012 when this article was originally published. If this isn’t the information you were looking for, please feel free to email our editorial team at

    Kind regards,

    The Team

  • Alec

    July 20th, 2017 at 6:17 AM

    This article is a little shortsighted. Dressing nice is not neccesarily contingent upon someone feeling happy and confident. It is the other way around, and even that isn’t a black and white factor. You mentioned ONE study was done.. what study was this, who did the study, what was the demographic,what about the other studies that say the opposite, etc etc etc?

    People dress based on how they feel. There is no correlation between specifically how they dress based on how they feel; gor examlple a depressed person does not neccesarily dress down because they are depressed. Actually it is quite the opposite and these people often overdress to compensate for their insecurities.

  • David

    August 20th, 2019 at 9:06 PM


  • James

    November 10th, 2019 at 11:29 PM

    I don’t need to see clothes to determine a person’s emotional state. I can feel the emotions as they get closer to me. Frankly, everyone should be able to do this, but I find most people don’t care enough to try.

  • jignov

    May 13th, 2020 at 3:09 AM

    i read this second time..i really like these article.

  • dayana

    October 6th, 2020 at 4:19 PM

    it was nice to read this

  • Natalie

    April 8th, 2021 at 10:05 AM

    I think this article is partially wrong on the fact that some women wear dark and baggy clothes when they are depressed. I have worn dark, baggy, jeans, hoodies and crocs my whole life and i am nowhere near depressed. It is simply just how I dress and what I am comfortable with wearing. You can’t just assume someones mood through their clothes you have to ask them. Although some of the information is correct you can’t just assume someones mood or you will worsen their mood.

  • Ephrem

    January 18th, 2023 at 9:37 AM

    what if some one stick to a kind of cloths and called ‘I do have spiritual attachment. ‘ How this kinds of deviation can be understood in a society, how would you help this person. Can we call it mental health issue, if then what kind. The person whom I know has enough money and property but puts on ripped pant and shirt, even in summer he will never remove it or putt on winter pant and jacket. what do we call this in relation to mental health, is there any one who have clinical knowledge ?

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