When cancer hits home, it can be a lot for everyone to process. Questions may arise, many of which can’t be answered or might have complex or uncertain answers. Discussing cancer with a loved one often presents many challenges, particularly when it comes to children.
Planning these conversations can feel overwhelming and may elicit significant anxiety just from thinking about what to say and how to say it. Do the children really need to know that grandma has cancer? What, exactly, do the children need to know about grandpa’s diagnosis? How should we discuss a spouse’s diagnosis with our children? What will they understand? How will they react? How do we answer questions we don’t know the answers to? Will we be able to keep it together emotionally?
With careful thought about what to say and how to say it, such conversations may turn out to be less challenging than anticipated. Following are some tips to facilitate conversations with children about cancer. You’ll want to consider:
- The relationship between the child and the person with cancer: If the person is someone who is an active part of the child’s life, discussing developments involving the important people in their lives is inevitable. Children will pick up on changes in their immediate world and will appreciate being let in on the changes early in the process.
- The age of the child: With younger children, it’s generally best to provide short answers with basic facts. For older children, you may be able to offer more detailed information.
- The child’s preferences for information: Some children (and adults) find comfort in having ample information, whereas others prefer not to know certain things.
- Language you’ll use to discuss cancer and its treatment: Some experts recommend using the accurate words (e.g., cancer, chemotherapy) to help your child have the language to think about what is happening and discuss it. Regardless of age, use simple and clear language whenever possible.
- How you’ll acknowledge the child’s emotional response: It’s important to acknowledge that having feelings—even uncomfortable feelings—is normal. You are sharing some big and perhaps scary information with the child, and they may not be sure how to react. Reaffirm it is understandable and appropriate to have emotional reactions to this news, and there are no right or wrong ways to feel. That said, sometimes children have less of an emotional reaction to big news than adults expect, at least initially. Be prepared for delayed responses and check back in.
The important thing is for the child to know it is okay to have a reaction, even if the reaction doesn’t feel comfortable. Similarly, it’s important to be aware of whether your fear of upsetting your child is holding you back from having a difficult conversation.
- How you’ll address your own emotions: Whether it’s appropriate to share your own emotions may vary based on the child’s age, maturity level, and the nature of the news. The important thing is for the child to know it is okay to have a reaction, even if the reaction doesn’t feel comfortable. Similarly, it’s important to be aware of whether your fear of upsetting your child is holding you back from having a difficult conversation.
- Anticipated questions and concerns: Do you anticipate concerns that your child has or will have down the road? If you sense something is on their minds, let them know it is okay to share. Ask whether there is something they would like to know that may be weighing on their minds. Consider how will you address these concerns. Whatever you share, they may have follow-up questions. Let them know they can come to you with questions, as often there are things on their mind that they don’t know how to ask, or there are new questions that arise over time.
- Resources to help children cope: Browse literature written for children about illness to see what may be appropriate to share. Many children relate to how another child experiences something similar. A book may also serve as a catalyst to discuss challenging topics in the family. Also consider, if appropriate, encouraging journaling, drawing, or existing community resources that offer support to children who have a loved one diagnosed with cancer.
- Be open to receiving support for yourself: As with most challenges, there is no need to go through this alone. There is much outside support available, even if it seems hard to find. Health care providers can assist with making referrals to support groups or therapists to help manage emotions. There are many reputable websites that can also steer you in the right direction. Support may come in different forms, of course. For families, this may mean accepting meals from friends, neighbors, or community, and asking for help with carpools or child care. A side benefit is your child will see how much others in their world care.
Considering the tips above may enable a smoother adjustment for you and your family. When challenges arise, seek support.
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