Depressed Females Prone to Ruminate More than Males

Nearly 20 percent of adolescents will have experienced a major depressive episode by the time they reach the age of 18, with twice as many girls becoming depressed as boys. “One possible explanation for the emergent sex difference in depression is a sex difference in rumination, which is the tendency to respond to negative events with perseverative attention on negative stimuli,” said Jordan Simonson, M.A., of the Department of Clinical Psychology at Seattle Pacific University and lead author of a recent study examining the differences in rumination between males and females. “Females report greater rumination than males, and this sex difference partially accounts for the sex difference in depression.” Simonson and a team of researchers sought to determine what role gender plays in trait rumination and state rumination, response to a particular event, in teens.

Simonson noted that although rumination is more highly associated with female gender roles, and is a predictor of depression, it is not always a negative factor. “Evidence suggests that while some patterns of gender role identification may be a vulnerability factor for psychosocial problems such as depression, others may be protective,” said Simonson, commenting on the social benefits of rumination for women. He added, “Rather than divert their attention away from emotionally and interpersonally salient events, females are encouraged to be emotionally sensitive and attuned to their own and others’ responses to such situations.” Simonson looked at over 100 adolescents and found that females were more likely to ruminate than males, but only in regards to specific stressors. “As hypothesized, we found that femininity partially accounted for the sex difference in trait interpersonal, but not achievement rumination.” Simonson added, “The current study demonstrated that the feminine gender role identification accounted for the greater trait interpersonal rumination in females, and continued to form an indirect pathway between sex and state interpersonal rumination prospectively.” Simonson concluded, “The greater likeliness for females to experience vulnerability-stressor match over time is a potential contributor to the sex difference in depression.”

Simonson, Jordan, Amy Mezulis, and Katey Davis. “Socialized to Ruminate? Gender Role Mediates the Sex Difference in Rumination for Interpersonal Events.” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 30.9 (2011): 937-59. Print.

© Copyright 2011 by By Noah Rubinstein, LMFT, LMHC, therapist in Olympia, Washington. All Rights Reserved. Permission to publish granted to

The preceding article was solely written by the author named above. Any views and opinions expressed are not necessarily shared by Questions or concerns about the preceding article can be directed to the author or posted as a comment below.

  • Leave a Comment
  • Christa


    November 16th, 2011 at 4:58 PM

    When are we going to teach our girls to stand up and be a little stronger than they have been in the past? I am tired of them always having to encounter these roadblocks which inevitably continue to hold them back. I want them to be happy, lively, excited to be a girl! And happy about the life they have been given!

  • Joani


    November 17th, 2011 at 5:12 AM

    ok I have read over and over this article and I am still not so sure I understand this rumination thing. . . anyone explain it a little better for me?

  • Goya


    January 13th, 2012 at 6:38 AM

    Does anyone have this journal article, can’t get my hands on it. Thanks

Leave a Comment

By commenting you acknowledge acceptance of's Terms and Conditions of Use.



* Indicates required field.

Therapist   Treatment Center

Advanced Search

Search Our Blog

Title   Content   Author is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis, medical treatment, or therapy. Always seek the advice of your physician or qualified mental health provider with any questions you may have regarding any mental health symptom or medical condition. Never disregard professional psychological or medical advice nor delay in seeking professional advice or treatment because of something you have read on